Prevalence of Zika virus neutralizing antibodies in healthy adults in Vietnam during and after the Zika virus epidemic season: a longitudinal population-based survey.
- 作者列表："Nguyen CT","Moi ML","Le TQM","Nguyen TTT","Vu TBH","Nguyen HT","Pham TTH","Le THT","Nguyen LMH","Phu Ly MH","Ng CFS","Takemura T","Morita K","Hasebe F
BACKGROUND:Between 2016 and 2019, 265 cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Vietnam, predominantly in southern Vietnam. In 2016, a case of ZIKV-associated microcephaly was confirmed in the Central Highlands, and several members of the infant's family were confirmed to be infected with ZIKV. The study aims to determine the level of immunity to ZIKV in the general population of the ZIKV epidemic region. METHODS:A total of 879 serum samples were collected from 801 participants between January 2017 and July 2018, during and after the ZIKV epidemic in Vietnam. The samples were tested for anti-ZIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for ZIKV was performed on all samples, and for DENV on the samples that ZIKV neutralizing antibody positive. RESULTS:A total of 83 (10.3%) participants had anti-ZIKV IgM. Of the 83, 6 were confirmed to be ZIKV antibodies positive using PRNT and anti-ZIKV IgG ELISA. Of the 718 participants who were anti-ZIKV IgM negative, a further 3 cases were confirmed as positive for antibodies against ZIKV. Of the 9 participants with ZIKV infection, 5 lived in the same village as the infant with ZIKV-associated microcephaly and the other 4 lived in 2 neighboring communes. Repeat samples were collected from the 83 ZIKV IgM positive participants 1.5 years after the first collection. No new cases of ZIKV infection were detected. In addition, 2 of 3 participants with anti-ZIKV NS1 IgG demonstrated a 4- to 8-fold increase in ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS:ZIKV was present in the area around Krong Buk, with the rate of ZIKV-specific antibodies was 1.1% in the community since at least 2016. While the low levels of circulation together with low seroprevalence suggests a limited outbreak in the region, the results also reflect on low levels of protective immunity to Zika within the population. These results provide a better understanding of the current ZIKV epidemic status in the region and demonstrate a need for implementation of more effective ZIKV infection control measures.
背景: 在 2016 至 2019 之间，越南报告了 265 例寨卡病毒 (ZIKV) 感染病例，主要在越南南部。2016 年，在中央高地确诊了 1 例ZIKV相关小头症，婴儿家庭的多名成员被证实感染了ZIKV。本研究旨在确定ZIKV疫区普通人群对ZIKV的免疫水平。 方法: 在 2017 年 1 月至 2018 年 7 月期间，在越南ZIKV流行期间和之后，共收集了 879 名参与者的 801 份血清样本。采用酶联免疫吸附试验 (ELISA) 检测标本抗ZIKV免疫球蛋白M (IgM) 和免疫球蛋白G (IgG)，以及抗登革病毒 (DENV) IgG抗体。对所有样本进行ZIKV的空斑减少中和试验 (PRNT)，对ZIKV中和抗体阳性的样本进行DENV。 结果: 共有 83 例 (10.3%) 参与者有抗ZIKV IgM。83 例中，6 例经PRNT和抗ZIKV IgG ELISA检测证实为ZIKV抗体阳性。在 718 例抗ZIKV IgM阴性的参与者中，另有 3 例被证实为抗ZIKV抗体阳性。在 9 例ZIKV感染的参与者中，5 例与ZIKV相关性小头畸形婴儿生活在同一个村庄，另外 4 例生活在 2 个邻近的公社。首次采集后 1.5 年，从 83 例ZIKV IgM阳性参与者中采集重复样本。未检出新的ZIKV感染病例。此外，3 例抗ZIKV NS1 IgG的参与者中有 2 例表现出ZIKV中和抗体滴度增加 4 至 8 倍。 结论: ZIKV存在于Krong Buk周围地区，自至少 1.1% 以来，社区中ZIKV特异性抗体的发生率为 2016。虽然低循环水平以及低血清阳性率表明该地区爆发了有限的疫情，但结果也反映了人群中对寨卡的保护性免疫力水平较低。这些结果提供了对该地区当前ZIKV流行状况的更好理解，并证明需要实施更有效的ZIKV感染控制措施。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.