Genetic mutation of Frem3 does not causeFraser syndrome in mice.
- 作者列表："Kiyozumi D","Mori M","Kodani M","Ikawa M
:QBRICK, FRAS1, and FREM2 compose a family of extracellular matrix proteins characterized by twelve consecutive CSPG repeats and single or multiple Calx-β motifs. Dysfunction of these proteins have been associated with Fraser syndrome, which is characterized by malformation of skin, eyes, digits, and kidneys. FREM3 is another member of the 12-CSPG protein family. However, it remains unknown whether genetic dysfunction of FREM3 also causes Fraser syndrome or another developmental disorder. Here we investigated a Frem3 mutant mouse line generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The FREM3 mutant homozygotes were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and did not possess any defects characteristic of Fraser syndrome. These results indicate that the dysfunction of FREM3 is not associated with Fraser syndrome.
: QBRICK、FRAS1 和FREM2 组成一个细胞外基质蛋白家族，其特征为 12 个连续的CSPG重复序列和多个Calx-β 基序。这些蛋白的功能障碍与Fraser综合征有关，Fraser综合征的特征是皮肤、眼睛、手指和肾脏的畸形。FREM3 是 12-CSPG蛋白家族的另一个成员。然而，FREM3 的遗传功能障碍是否也会导致Fraser综合征或其他发育障碍仍然未知。这里我们研究了一个由CRISPR/Cas9-mediated基因组编辑产生的Frem3 突变小鼠系。FREM3 突变纯合子以预期的孟德尔比例出生，不具有任何Fraser综合征特征的缺陷。这些结果表明FREM3 的功能障碍与Fraser综合征无关。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.