Role of thyroid hormones in craniofacial development.
- 作者列表："Leitch VD","Bassett JHD","Williams GR
:The development of the craniofacial skeleton relies on complex temporospatial organization of diverse cell types by key signalling molecules. Even minor disruptions to these processes can result in deleterious consequences for the structure and function of the skull. Thyroid hormone deficiency causes delayed craniofacial and tooth development, dysplastic facial features and delayed development of the ossicles in the middle ear. Thyroid hormone excess, by contrast, accelerates development of the skull and, in severe cases, might lead to craniosynostosis with neurological sequelae and facial hypoplasia. The pathogenesis of these important abnormalities remains poorly understood and underinvestigated. The orchestration of craniofacial development and regulation of suture and synchondrosis growth is dependent on several critical signalling pathways. The underlying mechanisms by which these key pathways regulate craniofacial growth and maturation are largely unclear, but studies of single-gene disorders resulting in craniofacial malformations have identified a number of critical signalling molecules and receptors. The craniofacial consequences resulting from gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations affecting insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor receptor and WNT signalling are similar to the effects of altered thyroid status and mutations affecting thyroid hormone action, suggesting that these critical pathways interact in the regulation of craniofacial development.
: 颅面骨骼的发育依赖于关键信号分子对不同细胞类型的复杂时空组织。即使对这些过程的轻微破坏也会对颅骨的结构和功能造成有害的后果。甲状腺激素缺乏导致颅面和牙齿发育延迟，面部特征发育不良，中耳听小骨发育延迟。相比之下，甲状腺激素过量加速颅骨的发育，在严重的情况下，可能导致颅缝早闭伴神经系统后遗症和面部发育不全。这些重要异常的发病机制仍然知之甚少，研究不足。颅面发育的编排和缝线和联合软骨生长的调控依赖于几个关键的信号通路。这些关键通路调控颅面生长和成熟的潜在机制在很大程度上尚不清楚，但导致颅面畸形的单基因疾病的研究已经确定了一些关键的信号分子和受体。影响胰岛素样生长因子 1 的功能获得和功能丧失突变导致的颅面后果，成纤维细胞生长因子受体和WNT信号与甲状腺状态改变和突变影响甲状腺激素作用的作用相似，提示这些关键通路在颅面发育的调控中相互作用。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.