The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus found in the Netherlands can experimentally transmit Zika virus and Usutu virus.
- 作者列表："Abbo SR","Visser TM","Wang H","Göertz GP","Fros JJ","Abma-Henkens MHC","Geertsema C","Vogels CBF","Koopmans MPG","Reusken CBEM","Hall-Mendelin S","Hall RA","van Oers MM","Koenraadt CJM","Pijlman GP
BACKGROUND:The Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus is invading Europe and was first discovered in Lelystad, the Netherlands in 2013, where it has established a permanent population. In this study, we investigated the vector competence of Ae. japonicus from the Netherlands for the emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) and zoonotic Usutu virus (USUV). ZIKV causes severe congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. USUV is closely related to West Nile virus, has recently spread throughout Europe and is causing mass mortality of birds. USUV infection in humans can result in clinical manifestations ranging from mild disease to severe neurological impairments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In our study, field-collected Ae. japonicus females received an infectious blood meal with ZIKV or USUV by droplet feeding. After 14 days at 28°C, 3% of the ZIKV-blood fed mosquitoes and 13% of the USUV-blood fed mosquitoes showed virus-positive saliva, indicating that Ae. japonicus can transmit both viruses. To investigate the effect of the mosquito midgut barrier on virus transmission, female mosquitoes were intrathoracically injected with ZIKV or USUV. Of the injected mosquitoes, 96% (ZIKV) and 88% (USUV) showed virus-positive saliva after 14 days at 28°C. This indicates that ZIKV and USUV can efficiently replicate in Ae. japonicus but that a strong midgut barrier is normally restricting virus dissemination. Small RNA deep sequencing of orally infected mosquitoes confirmed active replication of ZIKV and USUV, as demonstrated by potent small interfering RNA responses against both viruses. Additionally, de novo small RNA assembly revealed the presence of a novel narnavirus in Ae. japonicus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Given that Ae. japonicus can experimentally transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) like ZIKV and USUV and is currently expanding its territories, we should consider this mosquito as a potential vector for arboviral diseases in Europe.
背景: 亚洲丛生蚊日本伊蚊正在入侵欧洲，2013 年首次在荷兰Lelystad被发现，并在那里建立了永久种群。在这项研究中，我们调查了来自荷兰的Ae. japonicus对新兴的寨卡病毒 (ZIKV) 和人畜共患Usutu病毒 (USUV) 的媒介能力。ZIKV引起人类严重的先天性小头畸形和吉兰-巴雷综合征。USUV与西尼罗河病毒密切相关，最近已经在整个欧洲传播，并正在导致鸟类的大规模死亡。人类的USUV感染可导致从轻微疾病到严重神经损伤的临床表现。 方法学/主要发现: 在我们的研究中，现场采集的Ae。日本血吸虫雌性通过液滴喂养接受了ZIKV或USUV的感染性血粉。28 ℃ 14 天后，3% 的ZIKV血饲蚊子和 13% 的USUV血饲蚊子唾液显示病毒阳性，表明Ae。日本血吸虫可同时传播两种病毒。为探讨蚊中肠屏障对病毒传播的影响，对雌蚊进行了ZIKV或USUV胸腔内注射。在注射的蚊子中，96% (ZIKV) 和 88% (USUV) 在 28 ℃ 下 14 天后显示病毒阳性唾液。这表明ZIKV和USUV可以在Ae. japonicus中有效复制，但强大的中肠屏障通常限制病毒传播。口服感染蚊子的小RNA深度测序证实了ZIKV和USUV的活跃复制，通过对两种病毒的强效小干扰RNA反应证明了这一点。此外，从头开始的小RNA组装揭示了一种新的纳纳病毒在Ae中的存在。日本。 结论/意义: 鉴于Ae。日本血吸虫可以像ZIKV和USUV一样通过实验传播节肢动物传播的病毒 (虫媒病毒)，目前正在扩大其领土，我们应该考虑将这种蚊子作为欧洲虫媒病毒疾病的潜在载体。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.