Comparison of the Effects of Intravenous and Oral Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Hemoglobin Levels During Total Knee Arthroplasty.
- 作者列表："Pathan S","Cruz JE","Curtin P
:Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent shown to reduce perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there are limited data regarding the efficacy of intravenous (IV) in comparison to oral (PO) TXA. Objective: The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of IV and PO TXA on perioperative hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in patients who have undergone TKA. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective chart review, patients at least 18 years of age who received IV or PO TXA following medical center protocol from 1 of 3 orthopedic surgeons were included. The primary outcome was the change in Hgb within 24 hours following TKA. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of postsurgical complications and hospital length of stay. Results: The IV TXA group contained 62 participants, and the PO TXA group contained 61 participants. Patients receiving PO therapy had a larger decrease in Hgb compared with the IV TXA group (-2.382 vs -1.908, P = 0.02), but there were no statistically significant differences in mean length of stay (3.13 vs 2.95, P = 0.27), venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurrence (0 vs 0, P = 1), or requirement for transfusions (6 vs 5, P = 0.76). Conclusions and Relevance: IV and PO TXA may not be equivalent in outcomes for patients undergoing TKA. This study found a statistically significant decrease in the mean change of Hgb in patients receiving PO TXA compared with IV TXA. However, the rate of transfusions, mean length of stay, and rate of VTE were similar between groups.
背景: 氨甲环酸 (TXA) 是一种抗纤溶药物，可减少全膝关节置换术 (TKA) 患者围手术期失血，但与口服 (PO) TXA相比，静脉 (IV) 的疗效数据有限。目的: 本研究的目的是比较IV和PO TXA对接受TKA患者围手术期血红蛋白 (Hgb) 水平的影响。方法: 在这项单中心、回顾性图表综述中，包括 3 名骨科医生中 1 名按照医疗中心方案接受IV或PO TXA治疗的至少 18 岁的患者。主要结局是TKA后 24 小时内Hgb的变化。次要结局包括术后并发症和住院时间的比较。结果: IV TXA组包含 62 名参与者，PO TXA组包含 61 名参与者。与IV TXA组相比，接受PO治疗的患者Hgb下降幅度更大 (-2.382 vs -1.908，P = 0.02)，但平均住院时间 (3.13 vs 2.95，P = 0.27) 、静脉血栓栓塞 (VTE) 发生率 (0 vs 0，P = 1)，或需要输血 (6 vs 5，P = 0.76)。结论和相关性: 对于接受TKA的患者，IV和PO TXA的结局可能并不等同。本研究发现与IV TXA相比，接受PO TXA的患者Hgb的平均变化在统计学上显著降低。然而，两组间的输血率、平均住院时间和VTE率相似。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.