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Can Bioactive Lipids Inactivate Coronavirus (COVID-19)?

生物活性脂质能否灭活冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)?

  • 影响因子:2.10
  • DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.03.004
  • 作者列表:"Das UN
  • 发表时间:2020-04-01
Abstract

:SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS are all enveloped viruses that can cause acute respiratory syndrome. Arachidonic acid (AA) and other unsaturated fatty acids (especially eicosapentaenoic acd, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA) are known to inactivate enveloped viruses and inhibit proliferation of various microbial organisms. The pro-inflammatory metabolites of AA and EPA such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes induce inflammation whereas lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins derived from AA, EPA and DHA not only suppress inflammation but also enhance would healing and augment phagocytosis of macrophages and other immunocytes and decrease microbial load. In view of these actions, it is suggested that AA and other unsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites may serve as endogenous anti-viral compounds and their deficiency may render humans susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS and other similar viruses' infections. Hence, oral or intravenous administration of AA and other unsaturated fatty acids may aid in enhancing resistance and recovery from SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS infections.

摘要

传染性非典型肺炎CoV-2 传染性非典型肺炎和MERS都是能引起急性呼吸综合征的有包膜病毒。已知花生四烯酸 (AA) 和其他不饱和脂肪酸 (特别是二十碳五烯酸acd、EPA和二十二碳六烯酸DHA) 可灭活包膜病毒并抑制各种微生物的增殖。AA和EPA的促炎代谢物,如前列腺素、白三烯和血栓素诱导炎症,而来自AA的脂氧素、甲羟孕酮、保护素和马树脂,EPA和DHA不仅抑制炎症,而且还增强巨噬细胞和其他免疫细胞的愈合和增强吞噬作用,并降低微生物负荷。鉴于这些作用,建议AA和其他不饱和脂肪酸及其代谢物可能作为内源性抗病毒化合物,并且它们的缺乏可能使人类易患传染性非典型肺炎CoV-2,传染性非典型肺炎和MERS以及其他类似病毒感染。因此,口服或静脉内施用AA和其它不饱和脂肪酸可有助于增强传染性非典型肺炎-CoV-2 、传染性非典型肺炎和MERS感染的抗性和恢复。

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影响因子:14.71
发表时间:2020-02-01
来源期刊:Nature immunology
DOI:10.1038/s41590-019-0571-2
作者列表:["Adrover JM","Aroca-Crevillén A","Crainiciuc G","Ostos F","Rojas-Vega Y","Rubio-Ponce A","Cilloniz C","Bonzón-Kulichenko E","Calvo E","Rico D","Moro MA","Weber C","Lizasoaín I","Torres A","Ruiz-Cabello J","Vázquez J","Hidalgo A"]

METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.

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影响因子:2.81
发表时间:2020-01-05
DOI:10.3390/ijerph17010356
作者列表:["Yang LC","Suen YJ","Wang YH","Lin TC","Yu HC","Chang YC"]

METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.89
发表时间:2020-04-01
DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.038
作者列表:["Ngocho JS","Horumpende PG","de Jonge MI","Mmbaga BT"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.

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肺炎方向

肺炎是指终末气道、肺泡和肺间质的炎症。可由细菌、病毒、真菌、寄生虫等致病微生物,以及放射线、吸入性异物等理化因素引起。临床主要症状为发热、咳嗽、咳痰、痰中带血,可伴胸痛或呼吸困难等。

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