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Approaches to the management of patients in oral and maxillofacial surgery during COVID-19 pandemic.

新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行期间口腔颌面外科患者的管理方法。

  • 影响因子:2.15
  • DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2020.03.011
  • 作者列表:"Zimmermann M","Nkenke E
  • 发表时间:2020-05-01
Abstract

:Oral and maxillofacial surgery is correlated with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Therefore, the aim of the review is to collect and discuss aspects of the management of patients in oral and maxillofacial surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to save resources and to avoid unnecessary exposure to infected patients, there is the need to schedule interventions depending on their priority. During the peak of the pandemic, no elective surgery should be performed. Even urgent procedures might be postponed if there is a view to recovery of a COVID-19 patient within a few days. Emergency procedures do not allow any delay. Specialties with overlap in therapies should have well defined arrangements among each other concerning the treatment spectra in order to avoid redundancy and loss of resources. Inpatient and outpatient units have to be organized in such a way that the risk of cross-infection among patients is reduced to a minimum. Especially, testing of patients for SARS-CoV-2 is important to detect the infected patients at an early stage. When surgery is performed on COVID-19 patients, adequate personal protective equipment is crucial. There must be negative pressure in the operating room, and aerosol formation must be reduced to a minimum. In order to address the COVID-19 challenge adequately, significant changes in the infrastructure of outpatient units, inpatient units, and operating rooms are needed. In addition, the demands concerning personal protective equipment increase significantly. The major aim is to protect patients as well as the medical staff from unnecessary infection, and to keep the healthcare system running effectively. Therefore, every effort should be taken to make the necessary investments.

摘要

: 口腔颌面外科与SARS-CoV-2 传播的高风险相关。因此,综述的目的是收集和讨论新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行期间口腔颌面外科患者的管理方面。为了节省资源和避免不必要的暴露于受感染的患者,有必要根据他们的优先级安排干预措施。在大流行高峰期,不应进行选择性手术。如果希望在几天内恢复新型冠状病毒肺炎的患者,甚至紧急程序也可能被推迟。紧急程序不允许任何延误。在治疗中具有重叠的专业应该具有彼此之间关于治疗谱的明确的安排,以避免资源的冗余和损失。住院和门诊单位的组织方式必须使患者之间的交叉感染风险降至最低。特别地,对患者进行SARS-CoV-2 的检测对于在早期阶段检测受感染的患者是重要的。当对新型冠状病毒肺炎名患者进行手术时,足够的个人防护装备是至关重要的。手术室必须有负压,并且必须将气溶胶形成降至最低。为了充分应对新型冠状病毒肺炎的挑战,需要对门诊单位、住院单位和手术室的基础设施进行重大改革。此外,对个人防护设备的需求大幅增加。主要目的是保护患者和医务人员免受不必要的感染,并保持医疗保健系统有效运行。因此,应尽一切努力进行必要的投资。

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发表时间:2020-02-01
来源期刊:Nature immunology
DOI:10.1038/s41590-019-0571-2
作者列表:["Adrover JM","Aroca-Crevillén A","Crainiciuc G","Ostos F","Rojas-Vega Y","Rubio-Ponce A","Cilloniz C","Bonzón-Kulichenko E","Calvo E","Rico D","Moro MA","Weber C","Lizasoaín I","Torres A","Ruiz-Cabello J","Vázquez J","Hidalgo A"]

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影响因子:2.81
发表时间:2020-01-05
DOI:10.3390/ijerph17010356
作者列表:["Yang LC","Suen YJ","Wang YH","Lin TC","Yu HC","Chang YC"]

METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.

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影响因子:2.89
发表时间:2020-04-01
DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.038
作者列表:["Ngocho JS","Horumpende PG","de Jonge MI","Mmbaga BT"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.

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肺炎方向

肺炎是指终末气道、肺泡和肺间质的炎症。可由细菌、病毒、真菌、寄生虫等致病微生物,以及放射线、吸入性异物等理化因素引起。临床主要症状为发热、咳嗽、咳痰、痰中带血,可伴胸痛或呼吸困难等。

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