SARS-CoV-2 纪事: 第一部分流行病学、诊断、预后、传播和治疗。
- 作者列表："Kumar M","Taki K","Gahlot R","Sharma A","Dhangar K
:In order to benefit the public, community workers and scientific community, we hereby present a chronicle of SARS-CoV-2 that leads to the unseen precedent of social distancing and lockdown owing to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Information on this life-threatening pandemic of COVID-19 is sparse and discrete; and the urgency is such that the dissemination of information is increasing with numerous daily publications on the topic. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive review on various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. We scientifically compiled published research, news, and reports from various sources to comprehend and summarize the information and findings on Coronaviruses. The review explicitly covers the aspects like genome and pedigree of SARS-CoV-2; epidemiology, prognosis, pathogenesis, symptoms and diagnosis of COVID-19 in order to catalog the right information on transmission route, and influence of environmental factors on virus transmissions, for the robust understanding of right strategical steps for proper COVID-19 management. We have explicitly highlighted several useful information and facts like: i) No established relationship between progression of SARS-CoV-2 with temperature, humidity and/or both, ii) The underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood, iii) Respiratory droplet size determines drop and airborne-based transmission, iv) Prognosis of COVID-19 can be done by its effects on various body organs, v) Infection can be stopped by restricting the binding of S protein and AE2, vi) Hydroxychloroquine is believed to be better than chloroquine for COVID-19, vii) Ivermectin with Vero-hSLAM cells is able to reduce infection by ~5000 time within 2 days, and viii) Nafamostat mesylate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S protein-initiated membrane fusion. We have also suggested future research perspectives, challenges and scope.
: 为了使公众、社区工作者和科学界受益，我们特此提交一份SARS-CoV-2 纪事，该纪事导致了因冠状病毒疾病而导致社会疏远和封锁的未知先例 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)。关于这一危及生命的新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行病的信息稀少且离散; 当务之急是随着关于这一主题的大量日常出版物的增加，信息的传播越来越多。因此，我们对SARS-CoV-2 和新型冠状病毒肺炎的各个方面进行了全面的回顾。我们科学地汇编了各种来源的已发表的研究、新闻和报告，以理解和总结关于冠状病毒的信息和发现。审查明确涵盖的方面，如基因组和谱系的SARS-CoV-2; 流行病学，预后，发病机制，症状和诊断新型冠状病毒肺炎为了目录正确的信息传播途径，以及环境因素对病毒传播的影响，对于正确的战略步骤的正确理解适当的新型冠状病毒肺炎管理。我们已经明确强调了几个有用的信息和事实，如: i) SARS-CoV-2 的进展与温度，湿度和/或两者之间没有确定的关系，ii) SARS-CoV-2 的潜在机制尚不完全清楚，iii) 呼吸液滴大小决定液滴和基于空气传播，iv)新型冠状病毒肺炎的预后可以通过其对各种身体器官的影响来完成，v) 可以通过限制S蛋白与AE2，vi的结合来阻止感染) 羟氯喹被认为比氯喹好新型冠状病毒肺炎，vii) 伊维菌素与Vero-hSLAM细胞能减少感染 ~5000 的时间在 2 天内，而viii) 甲磺酸萘法司他能抑制SARS-CoV-2 S蛋白引发的膜融合。我们还提出了未来的研究视角、挑战和范围。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.