- 作者列表："Correia MITD
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS:A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY:It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.
回顾的目的: 新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行病对医疗保健、经济衰退和心理困扰产生了巨大的影响，令世界望而却步。营养是每个人生活护理的一个组成部分，在新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行病下，营养也应该被强制纳入病人护理。了解新型冠状病毒肺炎如何发展以及哪些风险因素与负面结果和死亡相关至关重要。因此，最重要的是要有尊重科学方法的基本原则的研究，以便被信任。这篇综述的目的是讨论科学数据的泛滥及其如何影响临床推理和实践。 最近的发现: 大量的科学手稿在世界范围内每日出版，新型冠状病毒肺炎也不例外。到目前为止，新型冠状病毒肺炎的数据来自最初受该疾病影响的国家，主要涉及流行病学观察或意见文件。其中许多不符合表征适当科学方法的基本原则。 总结: 为了给患者提供足够的营养治疗，特别是新型冠状病毒肺炎感染者，能够对科学文献进行批判性评估是至关重要的。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.