SARS-COV-2 感染和肺炎的内质网应激标志物: 病例对照研究。
- 作者列表："Köseler A","Sabirli R","Gören T","Türkçüer I","Kurt Ö
BACKGROUND/AIM:A novel human coronavirus, named SARS-COV-2, has recently caused thousands of deaths all around the world. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the development of diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We aimed to to investigate the relationship between ER stress markers in patients infected with SARS-COV-2 and patients with pneumonia. A total of 9 patients (4 patients diagnosed with pneumonia and 5 patients diagnosed with SARS-COV-2 infection) who admitted to the emergency Department with symptoms of pneumonia and SARS-COV-2 were included in the study. A total of 18 healthy individuals without any known chronic or acute disease and drug use were included as the healthy control group. Serum human glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), serum human C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and serum human phospho extracellular signal regulated kinase (PERK) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS:GRP78 levels were found to be significantly higher in SARS-COV-2 positive cases compared to individuals in other groups. Serum GRP-78 level median value was statistically significantly higher in SARS-COV-2-positive group compared to the other groups (p=0.0003). Serum PERK level was statistically significantly higher in SARS-COV-2-positive pneumonia cases (p=0.046). CONCLUSION:An association was shown between GRP78 and SARS-COV-2 infection. Although a small number of patients was investigated, these results will be important and guide future treatments of SARS-COV-2.
背景/目的: 一种新型人类冠状病毒，命名为SARS-COV-2，最近在世界各地造成数千人死亡。内质网 (ER) 应激在疾病的发生发展中起重要作用。 患者和方法: 我们旨在研究SARS-COV-2 感染患者和肺炎患者的内质网应激标志物之间的关系。共有 9 名患者 (4 名诊断为肺炎的患者和 5 名诊断为SARS-COV-2 感染的患者) 以肺炎和SARS-COV-2 的症状进入急诊科。总共 18 个没有任何已知的慢性或急性病和药物使用的健康个体作为健康对照组。血清人葡萄糖调节蛋白 78 (GRP78) 、血清人C/EBP同源蛋白 (CHOP) 和血清人磷酸化细胞外信号调节激酶 (PERK) 使用酶联免疫吸附测定 (ELISA) 测量水平。 结果: 发现SARS-COV-2 例阳性病例的GRP78 水平显著高于其他组的个体。GRP-78 组血清SARS-COV-2-positive水平中位值显著高于其他组 (p = 0.0003)。SARS-COV-2-positive例肺炎患者血清PERK水平明显升高 (p = 0.046)。 结论: GRP78 与SARS-COV-2 感染之间存在相关性。虽然调查了少数患者，但这些结果将是重要的，并指导SARS-COV-2 的未来治疗。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.