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Hepatic consequences of COVID-19 infection. Lapping or biting?

新型冠状病毒肺炎感染的肝脏后果。舔还是咬?

  • 影响因子:2.00
  • DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2020.05.035
  • 作者列表:"Portincasa P","Krawczyk M","Machill A","Lammert F","Di Ciaula A
  • 发表时间:2020-07-01
Abstract

:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) starting last December in China placed emphasis on liver involvement during infection. This review discusses the underlying mechanisms linking COVID-19 to liver dysfunction, according to recent available information, while waiting further studies. The manifestations of liver damage are usually mild (moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase activities), and generally asymptomatic. Few patients can still develop severe liver problems, and therapeutic options can be limited. Liver dysfunction may affect about one-third of the patients, with prevalence greater in men than women, and in elderly. Mechanisms of damage are complex and include direct cholangiocyte damage and other coexisting conditions such as the use of antiviral drugs, systemic inflammatory response, respiratory distress syndrome-induced hypoxia, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction. During new COVID-19 infections, liver injury may be observed. If liver involvement appears during COVID-19 infection, however, attention is required. This is particularly true if patients are older or have a pre-existing history of liver diseases. During COVID-19 infection, the onset of liver damage impairs the prognosis, and hospital stay is longer.

摘要

: 中国从去年 12 月开始的 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 冠状病毒病疫情强调感染期间肝脏受累。这篇综述讨论了新型冠状病毒肺炎与肝功能障碍相关的潜在机制,根据最近的信息,在等待进一步的研究。肝损害的表现通常是轻度的 (血清天冬氨酸氨基转移酶活性中度升高),一般无症状。很少有患者仍然会出现严重的肝脏问题,治疗选择可能是有限的。肝功能障碍可能影响约 3分之1 的患者,其中男性患病率高于女性,并且在老年人中。损伤的机制是复杂的,包括直接的胆管细胞损伤和其他共存的病症,例如使用抗病毒药物、全身性炎症反应、呼吸窘迫综合征诱导的缺氧、败血症和多器官功能障碍。在新的新型冠状病毒肺炎感染期间,可观察到肝损伤。然而,如果在新型冠状病毒肺炎感染期间出现肝脏受累,则需要注意。如果患者年龄较大或已有肝脏疾病史,则尤其如此。新型冠状病毒肺炎感染时,肝损害发作损害预后,住院时间较长。

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影响因子:14.71
发表时间:2020-02-01
来源期刊:Nature immunology
DOI:10.1038/s41590-019-0571-2
作者列表:["Adrover JM","Aroca-Crevillén A","Crainiciuc G","Ostos F","Rojas-Vega Y","Rubio-Ponce A","Cilloniz C","Bonzón-Kulichenko E","Calvo E","Rico D","Moro MA","Weber C","Lizasoaín I","Torres A","Ruiz-Cabello J","Vázquez J","Hidalgo A"]

METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.

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翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.81
发表时间:2020-01-05
DOI:10.3390/ijerph17010356
作者列表:["Yang LC","Suen YJ","Wang YH","Lin TC","Yu HC","Chang YC"]

METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.89
发表时间:2020-04-01
DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.038
作者列表:["Ngocho JS","Horumpende PG","de Jonge MI","Mmbaga BT"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.

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肺炎方向

肺炎是指终末气道、肺泡和肺间质的炎症。可由细菌、病毒、真菌、寄生虫等致病微生物,以及放射线、吸入性异物等理化因素引起。临床主要症状为发热、咳嗽、咳痰、痰中带血,可伴胸痛或呼吸困难等。

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