- 作者列表："Amaddeo G","Nguyen CT","Maillé P","Mulé S","Luciani A","Machou C","Rodrigues A","Regnault H","Mallat A","Laurent A","Lafdil F","Hézode C","Pawlotsky JM","Calderaro J
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The recent approval of direct acting anti-virals (DAA) has dramatically changed the landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. Whether viral clearance could promote liver carcinogenesis is debated. It has been hypothesized that changes in intrahepatic immune surveillance following viral cure could favour tumour growth. This study aimed at characterizing the intrahepatic immune changes induced by HCV cure following DAA therapy. METHODS:Patients with compensated cirrhosis who underwent surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) to DAA therapy were included. A control group of untreated HCV-infected patients with compensated cirrhosis was selected. RNA was extracted from tumoral and non-tumoral tissues and analysed using the Nanostring Immuno-Oncology-360 panel. Immune cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Twenty patients were included: 10 patients with a DAA-induced SVR and 10 untreated controls. All of them had a de novo BCLC 0/A HCC. Non-tumoral tissue profiling showed down-regulation of interferon-related genes (including MX1, ISG15 and IFIT1) after DAA therapy. No other differences in immune profiles/immune cell densities were identified between the two groups. The intra-tumoral immune profiles of HCCs that occurred after DAA therapy were not qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of tumours occurring in untreated patients. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, removal of HCV infection after DAA-based therapy results only in a down-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes in non-tumoral tissues from patients with cirrhosis who develop HCC. These minor changes in the liver immune microenvironment are unlikely to favour HCC occurrence or recurrence after DAA-induced SVR.
背景与目的: 最近直接作用抗病毒药物 (DAA) 的批准极大地改变了丙型肝炎病毒 (HCV) 治疗的前景。病毒清除是否能促进肝癌发生存在争议。据推测，病毒治愈后肝内免疫监视的变化可能有利于肿瘤生长。本研究旨在研究 DAA 治疗后 HCV 治疗引起的肝内免疫变化。 方法: 纳入接受 DAA 治疗后持续病毒学应答 (SVR) 的肝细胞癌 (HCC) 手术切除的代偿性肝硬化患者。选择未经治疗的 HCV 感染代偿期肝硬化患者作为对照组。从肿瘤和非肿瘤组织中提取 RNA，并使用 Nanostring Immuno-Oncology-360 分析。免疫组化定量免疫细胞。 结果: 纳入 20 例患者: 10 例 DAA 诱导 SVR 患者和 10 例未治疗对照。所有患者均为新生 BCLC 0/a HCC。非肿瘤组织谱显示 DAA 治疗后干扰素相关基因 (包括 MX1 、 ISG15 和 IFIT1) 下调。两组之间的免疫特征/免疫细胞密度没有其他差异。DAA 治疗后发生的 hcc 的肿瘤内免疫特征在定性或定量上与未治疗患者中发生的肿瘤无明显差异。 结论: 总之，基于 DAA 的治疗后清除 HCV 感染仅导致肝硬化患者非肿瘤组织中干扰素刺激基因的下调。肝脏免疫微环境中的这些微小变化不太可能有利于 DAA 诱导 SVR 后 HCC 的发生或复发。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.