Liquiritin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the ROS-mediated MAPK/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway
甘草苷通过 ROS 介导的 MAPK/AKT/NF-κ b 信号通路抑制 HepG2 肝癌细胞增殖并诱导其凋亡
- 作者列表："Wang, Jia-Ru","Li, Tian-Zhu","Wang, Cheng","Li, Shu-Mei","Luo, Ying-Hua","Piao, Xian-Ji","Feng, Yu-Chao","Zhang, Yi","Xu, Wan-Ting","Zhang, Yu","Zhang, Tong","Wang, Shi-Nong","Xue, Hui","Wang, Hong-Xing","Cao, Long-Kui","Jin, Cheng-Hao
Liquiritin (LIQ), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, exhibits various pharmacological activities. In this study, to explore the potential anti-cancer effects and its underlying molecular mechanisms of LIQ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. LIQ significantly decreased viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and regulating Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c, cle-caspase-3, and cle-PARP. The cell cycle analysis and western blot analysis revealed that LIQ induced G2/M phase arrest through increased expression of p21 and decreased levels of p27, cyclin B, and CDK1/2. The flow cytometry and western blot analysis also suggested that LIQ promoted the accumulation of ROS in HepG2 cells and up-regulated the phosphorylation expression levels of p38 kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB-α); the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (AKT), signal transducer activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were down-regulated. However, these effects were reversed by N-acetyl- l -cysteine (NAC), MAPK, and AKT inhibitors. The findings demonstrated that LIQ induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the ROS-mediated MAPK/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway in HepG2 cells, and the LIQ may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human HCC.
甘草苷 (LIQ) 是甘草的主要成分，具有多种药理活性。本研究旨在探讨 LIQ 在肝细胞癌 (HCC) 细胞中的潜在抗癌作用及其潜在的分子机制。LIQ 通过降低线粒体膜电位和调节细胞色素 c 、 Bcl-2 和 cle-PARP 家族蛋白，显著降低 HepG2 细胞的活力并诱导 cle-caspase-3 凋亡。细胞周期分析和 western blot 分析发现，LIQ 通过增加 p21 的表达和降低 p27 、 cyclin B 和 CDK1/2 的水平诱导 G2/M 期阻滞。流式细胞术和 western blot 分析也提示 LIQ 促进 HepG2 细胞内 ROS 的积累，上调 p38 激酶的磷酸化表达水平, c-6月 N 末端激酶 (JNK) 和 NF-κ b 抑制剂 (i κ b-α); 细胞外信号调节激酶 (ERK) 的磷酸化水平, 蛋白激酶 B (AKT),信号转导子转录激活子 3 (STAT3) 和核因子 κ B (NF-κ B) 表达下调。然而，这些作用被 N-乙酰-l-半胱氨酸 (NAC) 、 MAPK 和 AKT 抑制剂逆转。研究结果表明，LIQ 通过 ROS 介导的 MAPK/AKT/NF-κ b 信号通路诱导 HepG2 细胞周期阻滞和凋亡, LIQ 有望成为治疗肝癌的潜在药物。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.