Effect of Food Intake and Body Position on the Pharmacokinetics of Swallowed APT-1011, a Fluticasone Orally Disintegrating Tablet, in Healthy Adult Volunteers.
食物摄入和体位对健康成人志愿者吞咽氟替卡松口腔崩解片 APT-1011 药代动力学的影响。
- 作者列表："Comer GM","Bush MA","Dellon ES","Marino MT
:Eosinophilic esophagitis is a common atopic disease of the esophagus. APT-1011 is an orally disintegrating tablet formulation of fluticasone propionate under development for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of APT-1011 under fed or fasted conditions in the morning (am) or at bedtime (hs) in the supine position. The study was a randomized, single-dose, 3-way, crossover design in healthy adult volunteers. In each study period participants received 2 3-mg orally disintegrating APT-1011 tablets. Serial plasma samples were collected before dosing and up to 72 hours after each dose. Twenty-two participants completed the study. The fluticasone propionate peak concentration (Cmax ) ranged from 5.97 to 200 pg/mL. Compared with am-fasted dosing, am-fed dosing was associated with a modestly higher Cmax (∼21%) but lower net exposure (area under the concentration-time curve ∼56% difference) and shorter time to reach Cmax (Tmax ) (Tmax fasted = 10 hours, fed = 5 hours). Dosing at hs resulted in an 18% and 32% decrease in Cmax relative to am-fasted and am-fed conditions, respectively. Dosing at hs led to an exposure that was higher than am-fed but lower than am-fasted dosing. Tmax with hs dosing (14 hours) was later than that with am dosing (Tmax fasted = 10 hours, fed = 5 hours). Adverse events were mild. There is low systemic exposure of fluticasone propionate with APT-1011. The rate of absorption was increased with a high-fat meal but decreased with hs dosing, suggesting the potential for longer dwell times in the esophagus.
: 嗜酸细胞性食管炎是一种常见的食管特应性疾病。APT-1011 是正在开发的用于治疗嗜酸性食管炎的丙酸氟替卡松口腔崩解片制剂。本研究的目的是评估 APT-1011 在早晨 (am) 或睡前 (hs) 喂养或禁食条件下的药代动力学、安全性和耐受性仰卧位。该研究是一项在健康成人志愿者中进行的随机、单剂量、 3 向交叉设计。在每个研究期间，参与者接受 2 3 mg 口腔崩解 APT-1011 片。在给药前和每次给药后长达 72 小时收集系列血浆样品。22 名参与者完成了这项研究。丙酸氟替卡松峰浓度 (Cmax) 范围为 5.97-200 pg/mL。与 am-fasted 剂量相比，am-fed 剂量与适度较高的 Cmax (21%) 相关，但净暴露量较低 (浓度-时间曲线下面积 ∼ 56% 差异) 和更短的时间达到 Cmax (Tmax) (Tmax 禁食 = 10 小时，fed = 5 小时)。相对于 am-fasted 和 am-fed 条件，hs 给药导致 Cmax 分别降低 18% 和 32%。Hs 给药导致暴露量高于 am 喂养，但低于 am 禁食给药。Hs 给药 (14 小时) 的 Tmax 晚于 am 给药 (Tmax 禁食 = 10 小时，加料 = 5 小时)。不良事件轻微。丙酸氟替卡松与 APT-1011 全身暴露量低。高脂膳食的吸收率增加，但随着 hs 剂量的增加而降低，提示在食管中停留时间较长的可能性。
METHODS:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the survival and toxicities in cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (CESCC) treated by concurrent chemoradiothrapy with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. Materials and Methods:A total of 112 consecutive CESCC patients were retrospectively reviewed. 3D-CRT and IMRT groups had been analyzed by propensity score matching method, with sex, age, Karnofsky performance status, induction chemotherapy, and tumor stage well matched. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Toxicities were compared between two groups by Fisher exact test. RESULTS:With a median follow-up time of 34.9 months, the 3-year OS (p=0.927) and PFS (p=0.859) rate was 49.6% and 45.8% in 3D-CRT group, compared with 54.4% and 42.8% in IMRT group. The rates of grade ≥ 3 esophagitis, grade ≥ 2 pneumonitis, esophageal stricture, and hemorrhage were comparable between two groups, while the rate of tracheostomy dependence was much higher in IMRT group than 3D-CRT group (14.3% vs.1.8%, p=0.032). Radiotherapy technique (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.79) and pretreatment hoarseness (HR, 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.70) were independently prognostic of tracheostomy dependence. CONCLUSION:No survival benefits had been observed while comparing IMRT versus 3D-CRT in CESCC patients. IMRT with fraction dose escalation and pretreatment hoarseness were considered to be associated with a higher risk for tracheostomy dependence. Radiation dose escalation beyond 60 Gy should be taken into account carefully when using IMRT with hypofractionated regimen.
METHODS::The radial force of esophageal stents may not completely change during extraction and therefore, the procedure of stent removal may cause tissue damage. The present study reports the manufacture of 2 novel detachable stents, which were designed to reduce tissue damage through their capacity to be taken or fall apart prior to removal and evaluated the supporting properties of these stents and the extent of local mucosal injury during their removal. The stents were manufactured by braiding, heat-setting, coating and connecting. The properties of the stents were evaluated by determining the following parameters: Expansion point, softening point, stent flexibility, radial compression ratio and radial force. A total of 18 rabbits with induced esophageal stricture were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: Detachable stent (DS) group, biodegradable stent (BS) group and control group. The stricture rate, complications, survival, degradation and stent removal were observed over 8 weeks. The stents of the DS and BS groups provided a similar supporting effect. The stricture rate, incidence of complications and survival were also similar between the 2 groups, while significant differences were noted between the DS and control groups and between the BS and control groups. In the BS group, the stents were degraded and moved to the stomach within 7 weeks (2 in 6 weeks and 3 in 7 weeks). The debris was extracted using biopsy forceps. In the DS group, all stents were easy to remove and 2 cases exhibited minor hemorrhage. In conclusion, the 2 types of novel detachable stent provided an equally efficient supporting effect in vitro and in vivo and may reduce the incidence of secondary injury during stent removal.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Immune imbalance and inflammation have been suggested as key factors of Barrett's esophagus (BE) pathway towards adenocarcinoma. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) indirectly reflects the relation between innate and adaptive immune systems and has been studied in premalignant conditions as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis. Our aim was to investigate if increasing values of NLR correlated with advancing stages of BE progression to dysplasia and neoplasia. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with biopsies reporting BE between 2013 and 2017 and with a complete blood count within 6 months from the endoscopy, as well as patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). NLR was calculated as neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. Cases (n = 113) were classified as non-dysplastic BE (NDBE, n = 72), dysplastic BE (DBE, n = 11) and EAC (n = 30). RESULTS:NLR progressively increased across groups (NDBE, 1.92 ± 0.7; DBE, 2.92 ± 1.1; EAC 4.54 ± 2.9), with a significant correlation between its increasing value and the presence of dysplasia or neoplasia (r = 0.53, p 2.27 was able to diagnose EAC with 80% sensitivity and 71% specificity (area under the curve = 0.8). CONCLUSION:NLR correlates with advancing stages of BE progression, a finding that reinforces the role of immune imbalance in EAC carcinogenesis and suggests a possible use of this marker for risk stratification on surveillance strategies.