The Effect of Physician Oral Health Services on Dental Use and Expenditures under General Anesthesia.
- 作者列表："Meyer BD","Wang R","Steiner MJ","Preisser JS
BACKGROUND:Despite early evidence touting the effectiveness of physician-provided oral health services (POHS), recent evidence suggests these services might have little impact on caries-related outcomes in children. General anesthesia (GA) is often used to treat early childhood caries and may be considered the most extreme utilization outcome. We sought to assess the impact of POHS utilization on dental GA utilization and expenditures. METHODS:We used the Medicaid claims of a birth cohort of children born in 2008 in North Carolina (N = 32,558) to determine the impact of POHS on dental utilization and expenditures under GA for individual children. Children were followed until their eighth birthday. We analyzed the association of the number of prior POHS visits with visit-specific outcomes of dental treatment under GA using population-averaged models fit with generalized estimating equations with exchangeable working correlation structure. RESULTS:Children with 2 or more previous POHS visits had reduced odds of GA (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93; confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.99; P = 0.029) and expenditures ($114; CI,-$152.61 to -$75.19; P < 0.001) compared to those without physician-provided oral health visits, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence. Dental expenditures did not differ between POHS and non-POHS subjects at non-GA visits. CONCLUSIONS:POHS decreased the odds of having dental GA treatment and dental expenditures at GA visits. The role of physicians in oral health care can reduce the impact on the most severe outcome-treatment under general anesthesia. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT:The results of this study have important financial implications for state Medicaid programs and disease management programs trying to mitigate the costs of treating early childhood caries under general anesthesia. Children who receive physician oral health care are less likely to use and more likely to save money on general anesthesia to complete dental treatment.
背景: 尽管早期证据表明医生提供的口腔健康服务 (POHS) 的有效性，但最近的证据表明这些服务对儿童龋齿相关结果的影响很小。全身麻醉 (GA) 通常用于治疗儿童早期龋齿，并且可能被认为是最极端的利用结果。我们试图评估POHS使用对牙科GA使用和支出的影响。 方法: 我们使用北卡罗来纳州2008年出生儿童出生队列的医疗补助声明 (N = 32,558) 来确定POHS对个人儿童的牙科使用和GA下的支出的影响。孩子们一直被跟踪到他们八岁生日。我们使用符合广义估计方程和可交换工作相关结构的人口平均模型，分析了遗传算法下POHS既往就诊次数与牙科治疗访视特定结局的关联。 结果: 有2次或2次以上POHS就诊的儿童的GA发生几率降低 (比值比 [or] = 0.93; 置信区间 [CI]，0.87-0.99; P = 0.029) 和支出 ($114; CI，-$152.61至-$75.19; P < 0.001) 与那些没有医生提供的口腔健康访问相比，调整年龄，性别、种族/民族和地理居住地。在非GA就诊时，POHS和非POHS受试者的牙科支出没有差异。 结论: POHS降低了牙科GA治疗的几率和GA就诊时的牙科支出。医生在口腔保健中的作用可以减少对最严重结果的影响-全身麻醉下的治疗。 知识转移声明: 这项研究的结果对州医疗补助计划和疾病管理计划具有重要的财务影响，这些计划试图减轻全身麻醉下治疗儿童早期龋齿的成本。接受医生口腔保健的儿童不太可能使用，更可能节省全身麻醉的费用，以完成牙科治疗。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.
METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.