Ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block assists in anesthesia for bronchoscopic surgical procedure: A case report of anesthesia for rigid bronchoscopy.


  • 影响因子:1.95
  • DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000020916
  • 作者列表:"Liao YC","Wu WC","Hsieh MH","Chang CC","Tsai HC
  • 发表时间:2020-07-02

INTRODUCTION:Evolving techniques in the field of therapeutic bronchoscopy have led to the return of rigid bronchoscopy in the treatment of complex central airway disease. Rigid bronchoscopy is typically performed under general anesthesia because of the strong stimulation caused by metal instruments. Anesthesia for rigid bronchoscopy is challenging to administer because anesthesiologists and interventionists share the same working channel: the airway. Previously reviewed anesthetic methods are used primarily for short procedures. Balanced anesthesia with ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) block and total intravenous anesthesia might provide anesthesia for a prolonged procedure and facilitate patient recovery. PATIENT CONCERNS:A patient with obstructed endobronchial stent was referred for therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy, which requires deeper anesthesia than flexible bronchoscopy. There were concerns of the stronger stimulation of the rigid bronchoscopy, lengthy duration of the procedure, higher risk of hypoxemia, and the difficulty of mechanical ventilation weaning after anesthesia due to the patients co-morbidities. DIAGNOSIS:A 66-year-old female patient presented with a history of breast cancer with lung metastases. Right main bronchus obstruction due to external compression of lung metastases was relieved through insertion of an endobronchial stent, but obstructive granulation developed after 4 months. Presence of the malfunctioning stent caused severe cough and discomfort. Removal of the stent by using a flexible bronchoscope was attempted twice but failed. INTERVENTIONS:Regional anesthesia of the upper airway through ultrasound-guided SLN block combined with intratracheal 2% lidocaine spray was performed to assist in total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) during rigid bronchoscopy. OUTCOMES:The patient maintained steady spontaneous breathing throughout the procedure without laryngospasm, bucking, or desaturation. Emergence from anesthesia was smooth and rapid after propofol infusion was discontinued. The surgery lasted 2.5 hours without discontinuity, and no perioperative pulmonary or cardiovascular complications were noted. CONCLUSION:Ultrasound-guided SLN block is a simple technique with a high success rate and low complication rate. Application of SLN block to assist TIVA provides sufficient anesthesia for lengthened therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy without interruption and facilitates patient recovery.


引言: 治疗性支气管镜检查领域的技术不断发展,导致了硬性支气管镜检查在治疗复杂中央气道疾病中的回归。由于金属器械引起的强烈刺激,刚性支气管镜检查通常在全身麻醉下进行。刚性支气管镜检查的麻醉具有挑战性,因为麻醉师和介入医师共享相同的工作通道: 气道。以前审查的麻醉方法主要用于短期程序。超声引导下喉上神经 (SLN) 阻滞和全静脉麻醉的平衡麻醉可能为延长手术时间提供麻醉并促进患者恢复。 患者担忧: 1例支气管内支架阻塞的患者被转诊进行治疗性硬性支气管镜检查,其需要比柔性支气管镜检查更深的麻醉。有人担心刚性支气管镜检查的刺激较强,手术时间较长,低氧血症的风险较高,以及由于患者合并疾病而导致麻醉后机械通气撤机的困难。 诊断: 患者女,66岁,乳腺癌肺转移病史。由于肺转移瘤的外部压迫,右主支气管阻塞通过插入支气管内支架缓解,但4个月后出现阻塞性肉芽。支架出现故障引起严重的咳嗽和不适。尝试使用柔性支气管镜移除支架两次,但失败。 干预措施: 通过超声引导下SLN阻滞联合气管内2% 利多卡因喷雾进行上气道区域麻醉,以辅助硬质支气管镜检查时的全凭静脉麻醉 (TIVA)。 结果: 患者在整个过程中保持稳定的自主呼吸,没有喉痉挛、呛咳或去饱和。停止丙泊酚输注后,麻醉苏醒平稳、迅速。手术持续2.5小时,无间断,无围手术期肺部或心血管并发症。 结论: 超声引导下SLN阻滞操作简单,成功率高,并发症发生率低。应用SLN阻滞辅助TIVA为延长的治疗刚性支气管镜检查提供了充分的麻醉,没有中断,并有利于患者恢复。



作者列表:["Winterberg AV","Ding L","Hill LM","Stubbeman BL","Varughese AM"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.

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作者列表:["Uppal V","Retter S","Casey M","Sancheti S","Matheson K","McKeen DM"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.

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作者列表:["Jean YK","Kam D","Gayer S","Palte HD","Stein ALS"]

METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.

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