Fine Tuning Non-invasive Respiratory Support to Prevent Lung Injury in the Extremely Premature Infant
- 作者列表："Kirsten Glaser","Christian P. Speer","Clyde J. Wright
Within the last decades, therapeutic advances, such as antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant replacement, monitored administration of supplemental oxygen, and sophisticated ventilatory support have significantly improved the survival of extremely premature infants. In contrast, the incidence of some neonatal morbidities has not declined. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain high and have prompted neonatologists to seek effective strategies of non-invasive respiratory support in high risk infants in order to avoid harmful effects associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. There has been a stepwise replacement of invasive mechanical ventilation by early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the preferred strategy for initial stabilization and for early respiratory support of the premature infant and management of respiratory distress syndrome. However, the vast majority of high risk babies are mechanically ventilated at least once during their NICU stay. Adjunctive therapies aiming at the prevention of CPAP failure and the support of functional residual capacity have been introduced into clinical practice, including alternative techniques of administering surfactant as well as non-invasive ventilation approaches. In contrast, the strategy of applying sustained lung inflations in the delivery room has recently been abandoned due to evidence of higher rates of death within the first 48 h of life.
在过去的几十年里，治疗进展，如产前皮质类固醇、表面活性物质替代、监测给氧和复杂的通气支持，显著改善了极早产儿的生存。相比之下，一些新生儿发病率并没有下降。支气管肺发育不良 (BPD) 的发生率仍然很高，并促使新生儿医生寻求高危婴儿无创呼吸支持的有效策略，以避免有创机械通气相关的有害影响。早期持续气道正压通气 (CPAP) 已逐步取代有创机械通气作为早产儿初始稳定和早期呼吸支持以及呼吸窘迫综合征管理的首选策略。然而，绝大多数高危婴儿在 NICU 住院期间至少机械通气一次。旨在预防 CPAP 失败和支持功能残气量的辅助治疗已被引入临床实践，包括给予表面活性剂的替代技术以及无创通气方法。相比之下，在产房应用持续肺膨胀的策略最近被放弃，因为有证据表明在生后最初 48 h 内死亡率较高。
METHODS:Background: The hospitalization of patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) in 5−15% of cases is associated with the occurrence of a complication in the form of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Purpose: Retrospective assessment of risk factors of VAP in patients treated at ICUs in the University Hospital in Krakow. Methods: The research involved the medical documentation of 1872 patients treated at the ICU of the University Hospital in Krakow between 2014 and 2017. The patients were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h. The obtained data were presented by qualitative and quantitative analysis (%). The qualitative variables were compared using the Chi2 test. Statistically significant was the p < 0.05 value. Results: VAP was demonstrated in 23% of all patients treated in ICU during the analyzed period, and this infection occurred in 13% of men and 10% of women. Pneumonia associated with ventilation was found primarily in patients staying in the ward for over 15 days and subjected to intratracheal intubation (17%). A statistically significant was found between VAP and co-morbidities, e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, alcoholism, obesity, the occurrence of VAP and multi-organ trauma, hemorrhage/hemorrhagic shock, and fractures as the reasons for admitting ICU patients. Conclusions: Patients with comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, and alcoholism are a high-risk group for VAP. Particular attention should be paid to patients admitted to the ICU with multi-organ trauma, fractures, and hemorrhage/hemorrhagic shock as patients predisposed to VAP. There is a need for further research into risk factors for non-modifiable VAP such as comorbidities and reasons for ICU admission in order to allow closer monitoring of these patients for VAP.
METHODS::Backgroud Severe pneumonia is one of the most common causes for mechanical ventilation. We aimed to early identify severe pneumonia patients with high risk of extubation failure in order to improve prognosis. Methods From April 2014 to December 2015, medical records of intubated patients with severe pneumonia in intensive care unit were retrieved from database. Patients were divided into extubation success and failure groups, and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify independent predictors for extubation failure. Results A total of 125 eligible patients were included, of which 82 and 43 patients had extubation success and failure, respectively. APACHE II score (odds ration (OR) 1.141, 95% confident interval (CI) 1.022-1.273, P = 0.019, cutoff at 17.5), blood glucose (OR 1.122, 95%CI 1.008-1.249, P = 0.035, cutoff at 9.87mmol/L), dose of fentanyl (OR 3.010, 95%CI 1.100-8.237, P = 0.032, cutoff at 1.135mg/d), and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (OR 2.774, 95%CI 1.062-7.252, P = 0.037) were independent risk factors for extubation failure. Conclusions In patients with severe pneumonia, APACHE II score > 17.5, blood glucose > 9.87mmol/L, fentanyl usage > 1.135mg/d, and the need for RBC transfusion might be associated with higher risk of extubation failure.
METHODS:PURPOSE:To assess the association between the duration of mechanical ventilation during post resuscitation care and 30-day survival after cardiac arrest. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from two national registries. Comatose cardiac arrest patients admitted to general intensive care in Swedish hospitals between 2011 and 2016 were eligible. Based on the median duration of mechanical ventilation for patients who did not survive to hospital discharge, used as a proxy for the endurance of post resuscitation care, the hospitals were divided into four ordered groups for which association with 30-day survival was analyzed. RESULTS:In total, 5.113 patients in 56 hospitals were included. Median duration of mechanical ventilation for patients who did not survive to hospital discharge ranged from 17 hours in hospital group 1 to 51 hours in hospital group 4. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, 30-day survival in the entire cohort was positively and independently associated with ordered hospital group: (adjusted odds ratio (95%CI); 1.12 (1.02,1.23); p = 0.02). Thus, hospitals with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation among non-survivors had better survival rate among patients admitted to ICU after a cardiac arrest. However, in a secondary analysis restricted to patients with length of stay in the intensive care unit ≥ 48 hours, there was no significant association between 30-day survival and ordered hospital group. CONCLUSION:A tendency for longer duration of post resuscitation care in the ICU was associated with higher 30-day survival in comatose patients admitted to intensive care after cardiac arrest.