Intraclonal competitive fitness of longitudinal cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway isolates in liquid cultures.
- 作者列表："Cramer N","Fischer S","Hedtfeld S","Dorda M","Tümmler B
:The metabolically versatile Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabits biotic and abiotic environments including the niche of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. This study investigated how the adaptation to CF lungs affects the within-clone fitness of P. aeruginosa to grow and persist in liquid cultures in the presence of the clonal ancestors. Longitudinal clonal P. aeruginosa isolates that had been collected from 12 CF donors since the onset of colonization for up to 30 years were subjected to within-clone competition experiments. The relative quantities of individual strains were determined by marker-free amplicon sequencing of multiplex PCR products of strain-specific nucleotide sequence variants, a novel method that is generally applicable to studies in evolutionary genetics and microbial ecology with real-world strain collections. For ten of the twelve examined patient courses, P. aeruginosa isolates of the first years of colonization grew faster in the presence of their clonal progeny than alone. Single growth of individual strains showed no temporal trend with colonization time, but in co-culture the early isolates out-competed their clonal progeny. Irrespective of the genetic make-up of the clone and its genomic microevolution in CF lungs the early isolates expressed fitness traits to win the within-clone competition that were absent in their progeny. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
: 代谢功能广泛的铜绿假单胞菌栖息于生物和非生物环境，包括囊性纤维化 (CF) 气道的生态位。本研究研究了在克隆祖先存在的情况下，对 CF 肺的适应如何影响铜绿假单胞菌在液体培养物中生长和持续的克隆内适合度。自定植开始长达 30 年以来从 12 个 CF 供体收集的纵向克隆铜绿假单胞菌分离株进行克隆内竞争实验。通过菌株特异性核苷酸序列变异的多重 PCR 产物的无标记扩增子测序确定单个菌株的相对数量, 一种新的方法，通常适用于具有真实世界菌株集合的进化遗传学和微生物生态学研究。对于 12 个检查的患者病程中的 10 个，定植前几年的铜绿假单胞菌分离株在其克隆后代存在的情况下比单独生长得更快。个体菌株的单一生长与定殖时间无时间趋势，但在共培养中，早期分离株超越了其克隆后代。无论克隆的遗传组成及其在 CF 肺中的基因组微进化如何，早期分离株都表达了适合度性状，以赢得其后代中不存在的克隆内竞争。本文受版权保护。保留所有权利。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To asses the clinical course in RA-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients with and without rituximab (RTX). The influence of other variables was also evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted in RA diagnosed with ILD from 2007 until 2018 in Madrid. Patients were included in a registry [pNEumology RhEumatology Autoinmune diseases (NEREA)] from the time of ILD diagnosis. The main endpoint was functional respiratory impairment (FI), when there was a decline ≥5% in the predicted forced vital capacity compared with the previous one. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and in follow-up visits every 6-12 months. The independent variable was therapy with RTX. Covariables included sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and other therapies. Survival techniques were used to estimate the incidence rate (IR) and 95% CI of functional impairment, expressed per 100 patient-semesters. Cox multivariate regression models were run to examine the influence of RTX and other covariates on FI. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) and CI. RESULTS:A total of 68 patients were included. FI occurred in 42 patients [IR 23.5 (95% CI 19, 29.1)] and 50% of them had FI within 1.75 years of an ILD diagnosis. A multivariate analysis showed that RTX exposure resulted in a lower risk of FI compared with non-exposure [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31, 0.85)]. Interstitial pneumonia, glucocorticoids, disease activity and duration also influenced FI. CONCLUSION:RA-ILD patients deteriorate over time, with the median time free of impairment being <2 years. Patients exposed to RTX had a higher probability of remaining free of FI compared with other therapies. Other factors have also been identified. Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, observational study, rituximab and prognosis
METHODS:The safety of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody for patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of preexisting ILD on anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the association of preexisting ILD with the incidence, radiographic pattern, and outcome of pneumonitis in NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody. A total of 331 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 17 had preexisting ILD. The incidence of pneumonitis was higher among the patients with preexisting ILD than among those without preexisting ILD (29% vs. 10%, P = 0.027). The distributions of the CT appearances at the onset of anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis were as follows: for the patients with preexisting ILD, two patients (40%) had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), one patient each with organizing pneumonia-like (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and other patterns (20% each); for the patients without preexisting ILD, 19 patients (61%) had OP, 8 (26%) had HP, 3 (10%) had DAD, and 1 (3.2%) had other patterns. The median onset time from the initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment until the development of pneumonitis was 1.3 months (range 0.3–2.1 months) for the patients with preexisting ILD and 2.3 months (range 0.2–14.6 months) for the patients without preexisting ILD. Careful attention to the development of pneumonitis is needed, especially within the first 3 months after the start of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, when using anti-PD-1 antibody to treat patients with preexisting ILD.
METHODS::Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are ubiquitous multidrug resistant organisms and opportunistic pathogens capable of causing life threatening lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. No effective therapies are currently available to eradicate Bcc bacteria from CF patients, as these organisms are inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antimicrobials. An immunoproteomics approach was used to identify Bcc proteins that stimulate the humoral immune response of the CF host, using bacterial cells grown under conditions mimicking the CF lung environment and serum samples from CF patients with a clinical record of Bcc infection. 24 proteins of the Bcc strain B. cenocepacia J2315 were identified as immunoreactive, 19 here reported as immunogenic for the first time. Ten proteins were predicted as extracytoplasmic, 9 of them being conserved in Bcc genomes. The immunogenic Bcc extracytoplasmic proteins are potential targets for development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools to protect patients against the onset of chronic Bcc lung infections.