Quantitative Framework for Model Evaluation in Microbiology Research Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Cystic Fibrosis Infection as a Test Case.
- 作者列表："Cornforth DM","Diggle FL","Melvin JA","Bomberger JM","Whiteley M
:Laboratory models are a cornerstone of modern microbiology, but the accuracy of these models has not been systematically evaluated. As a result, researchers often choose models based on intuition or incomplete data. We propose a general quantitative framework to assess model accuracy from RNA sequencing data and use this framework to evaluate models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infection. We found that an in vitro synthetic CF sputum medium model and a CF airway epithelial cell model had the highest genome-wide accuracy but underperformed on distinct functional categories, including porins and polyamine biosynthesis for the synthetic sputum medium and protein synthesis for the epithelial cell model. We identified 211 "elusive" genes that were not mimicked in a reference strain grown in any laboratory model but found that many were captured by using a clinical isolate. These methods provide researchers with an evidence-based foundation to select and improve laboratory models.IMPORTANCE Laboratory models have become a cornerstone of modern microbiology. However, the accuracy of even the most commonly used models has never been evaluated. Here, we propose a quantitative framework based on gene expression data to evaluate model performance and apply it to models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis lung infection. We discovered that these models captured different aspects of P. aeruginosa infection physiology, and we identify which functional categories are and are not captured by each model. These methods will provide researchers with a solid basis to choose among laboratory models depending on the scientific question of interest and will help improve existing experimental models.
: 实验室模型是现代微生物学的基石，但这些模型的准确性尚未得到系统评估。因此，研究人员经常选择基于直觉或不完整数据的模型。我们提出了一个通用的定量框架，从 RNA 测序数据中评估模型的准确性，并使用该框架评估铜绿假单胞菌囊性纤维化 (CF) 肺部感染的模型。我们发现体外合成 CF 痰液培养基模型和 CF 气道上皮细胞模型具有最高的全基因组准确性，但在不同的功能类别上表现不佳。包括用于合成痰培养基的孔蛋白和多胺生物合成以及用于上皮细胞模型的蛋白质合成。我们确定了 211 个 “难以捉摸” 的基因，这些基因在任何实验室模型中生长的参考菌株中都没有被模仿，但发现许多基因是通过使用临床分离株捕获的。这些方法为研究人员选择和改进实验室模型提供了循证基础，重要性实验室模型已经成为现代微生物学的基石。然而，即使是最常用的模型的准确性也从未被评估过。在此，我们提出了一个基于基因表达数据的定量框架来评估模型性能，并将其应用于铜绿假单胞菌囊性纤维化肺部感染的模型。我们发现这些模型捕获了铜绿假单胞菌感染生理学的不同方面，我们确定了每个模型捕获和不捕获哪些功能类别。这些方法将为研究人员提供坚实的基础，根据感兴趣的科学问题在实验室模型中进行选择，并有助于改进现有的实验模型。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To asses the clinical course in RA-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients with and without rituximab (RTX). The influence of other variables was also evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted in RA diagnosed with ILD from 2007 until 2018 in Madrid. Patients were included in a registry [pNEumology RhEumatology Autoinmune diseases (NEREA)] from the time of ILD diagnosis. The main endpoint was functional respiratory impairment (FI), when there was a decline ≥5% in the predicted forced vital capacity compared with the previous one. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and in follow-up visits every 6-12 months. The independent variable was therapy with RTX. Covariables included sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and other therapies. Survival techniques were used to estimate the incidence rate (IR) and 95% CI of functional impairment, expressed per 100 patient-semesters. Cox multivariate regression models were run to examine the influence of RTX and other covariates on FI. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) and CI. RESULTS:A total of 68 patients were included. FI occurred in 42 patients [IR 23.5 (95% CI 19, 29.1)] and 50% of them had FI within 1.75 years of an ILD diagnosis. A multivariate analysis showed that RTX exposure resulted in a lower risk of FI compared with non-exposure [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31, 0.85)]. Interstitial pneumonia, glucocorticoids, disease activity and duration also influenced FI. CONCLUSION:RA-ILD patients deteriorate over time, with the median time free of impairment being <2 years. Patients exposed to RTX had a higher probability of remaining free of FI compared with other therapies. Other factors have also been identified. Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, observational study, rituximab and prognosis
METHODS:The safety of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody for patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of preexisting ILD on anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the association of preexisting ILD with the incidence, radiographic pattern, and outcome of pneumonitis in NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody. A total of 331 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 17 had preexisting ILD. The incidence of pneumonitis was higher among the patients with preexisting ILD than among those without preexisting ILD (29% vs. 10%, P = 0.027). The distributions of the CT appearances at the onset of anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis were as follows: for the patients with preexisting ILD, two patients (40%) had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), one patient each with organizing pneumonia-like (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and other patterns (20% each); for the patients without preexisting ILD, 19 patients (61%) had OP, 8 (26%) had HP, 3 (10%) had DAD, and 1 (3.2%) had other patterns. The median onset time from the initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment until the development of pneumonitis was 1.3 months (range 0.3–2.1 months) for the patients with preexisting ILD and 2.3 months (range 0.2–14.6 months) for the patients without preexisting ILD. Careful attention to the development of pneumonitis is needed, especially within the first 3 months after the start of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, when using anti-PD-1 antibody to treat patients with preexisting ILD.
METHODS::Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are ubiquitous multidrug resistant organisms and opportunistic pathogens capable of causing life threatening lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. No effective therapies are currently available to eradicate Bcc bacteria from CF patients, as these organisms are inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antimicrobials. An immunoproteomics approach was used to identify Bcc proteins that stimulate the humoral immune response of the CF host, using bacterial cells grown under conditions mimicking the CF lung environment and serum samples from CF patients with a clinical record of Bcc infection. 24 proteins of the Bcc strain B. cenocepacia J2315 were identified as immunoreactive, 19 here reported as immunogenic for the first time. Ten proteins were predicted as extracytoplasmic, 9 of them being conserved in Bcc genomes. The immunogenic Bcc extracytoplasmic proteins are potential targets for development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools to protect patients against the onset of chronic Bcc lung infections.