Procalcitonin predicts the severity of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations and readmissions in adult patients: a prospective cohort study.
- 作者列表："Bailey KL","Murphy PJ","Lineberry OK","Haack MR","Dickinson JD","Kalil AC
:Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience multiple pulmonary exacerbations throughout their lifetime, resulting in repeated antibiotic exposure and hospital admissions. Reliable diagnostic markers to guide antibiotic treatment in patients with CF, however, are lacking. Given that the CF airway is characterized by persistent and frequent bacterial infection, our goal was to determine if procalcitonin (PCT) could be used as a severity and prognostic marker of CF exacerbation. We enrolled 40 participants at the time of diagnosis of CF pulmonary exacerbation. Inclusion criteria: age ≥19 years with exacerbation requiring antibiotics as determined by the treating physician. Exclusion criteria: antibiotics initiated more than 48 hours prior to enrollment, and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected on enrollment day and after 7-10 days of treatment. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 23 (57.5%) had detectable levels of PCT (≥0.05 ng/mL). PCT levels were significantly associated with pulmonary exacerbation scores (p=0.01) and per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p=0.01) compared with the best in the last 12 months. Those who had worsening PCT during treatment had less improvement in FEV1 (p=0.001) and were more likely to be readmitted to the hospital sooner (p＜0.0001). Likewise, those who had a detectable PCT at the time of admission were more likely to be readmitted sooner (p=0.03). PCT elevation during antibiotic treatment is associated with less improvement in FEV1 and earlier readmission. A detectable PCT level occurs only in more severe CF exacerbations. Multicenter trials are needed to confirm whether PCT may play a role in the clinical care of patients with CF.
: 囊性纤维化 (CF) 患者一生中经历多次肺部恶化，导致重复抗生素暴露和住院。然而，缺乏可靠的诊断标志物来指导 CF 患者的抗生素治疗。鉴于 CF 气道以持续和频繁的细菌感染为特征，我们的目标是确定降钙素原 (PCT) 是否可作为 CF 恶化的严重程度和预后标志物。我们在诊断 CF 肺加重期时招募了 40 名参与者。纳入标准: 年龄 ≥ 19 岁，病情加重需经治疗医师确定使用抗生素。排除标准: 在入组和怀孕前 48 小时以上开始使用抗生素。在入组日和治疗 7-10 天后采集血样。在入组的 40 例患者中，23 例 (57.5%) 具有可检测的 PCT 水平 (≥ 0.05 ng/mL)。PCT 水平与肺部加重评分 (p = 0.01) 和 1 秒用力呼气容积 (FEV1) 下降 0.01 显著相关 (p =) 与最近 12 个月最好的相比。治疗期间 PCT 恶化者 FEV1 改善较少 (p = 0.001)，更有可能更快再次入院 (p<0.0001)。同样，那些在入院时检测到 PCT 的患者更有可能更快再次入院 (p = 0.03)。抗生素治疗期间 PCT 升高 与 FEV1 改善较少和较早再入院相关。可检测到的 PCT 水平仅发生在更严重的 CF 恶化中。需要多中心试验来证实 PCT 是否可能在 CF 患者的临床护理中发挥作用。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To asses the clinical course in RA-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients with and without rituximab (RTX). The influence of other variables was also evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted in RA diagnosed with ILD from 2007 until 2018 in Madrid. Patients were included in a registry [pNEumology RhEumatology Autoinmune diseases (NEREA)] from the time of ILD diagnosis. The main endpoint was functional respiratory impairment (FI), when there was a decline ≥5% in the predicted forced vital capacity compared with the previous one. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and in follow-up visits every 6-12 months. The independent variable was therapy with RTX. Covariables included sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and other therapies. Survival techniques were used to estimate the incidence rate (IR) and 95% CI of functional impairment, expressed per 100 patient-semesters. Cox multivariate regression models were run to examine the influence of RTX and other covariates on FI. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) and CI. RESULTS:A total of 68 patients were included. FI occurred in 42 patients [IR 23.5 (95% CI 19, 29.1)] and 50% of them had FI within 1.75 years of an ILD diagnosis. A multivariate analysis showed that RTX exposure resulted in a lower risk of FI compared with non-exposure [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31, 0.85)]. Interstitial pneumonia, glucocorticoids, disease activity and duration also influenced FI. CONCLUSION:RA-ILD patients deteriorate over time, with the median time free of impairment being <2 years. Patients exposed to RTX had a higher probability of remaining free of FI compared with other therapies. Other factors have also been identified. Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, observational study, rituximab and prognosis
METHODS:The safety of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody for patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of preexisting ILD on anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the association of preexisting ILD with the incidence, radiographic pattern, and outcome of pneumonitis in NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody. A total of 331 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 17 had preexisting ILD. The incidence of pneumonitis was higher among the patients with preexisting ILD than among those without preexisting ILD (29% vs. 10%, P = 0.027). The distributions of the CT appearances at the onset of anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis were as follows: for the patients with preexisting ILD, two patients (40%) had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), one patient each with organizing pneumonia-like (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and other patterns (20% each); for the patients without preexisting ILD, 19 patients (61%) had OP, 8 (26%) had HP, 3 (10%) had DAD, and 1 (3.2%) had other patterns. The median onset time from the initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment until the development of pneumonitis was 1.3 months (range 0.3–2.1 months) for the patients with preexisting ILD and 2.3 months (range 0.2–14.6 months) for the patients without preexisting ILD. Careful attention to the development of pneumonitis is needed, especially within the first 3 months after the start of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, when using anti-PD-1 antibody to treat patients with preexisting ILD.
METHODS::Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are ubiquitous multidrug resistant organisms and opportunistic pathogens capable of causing life threatening lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. No effective therapies are currently available to eradicate Bcc bacteria from CF patients, as these organisms are inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antimicrobials. An immunoproteomics approach was used to identify Bcc proteins that stimulate the humoral immune response of the CF host, using bacterial cells grown under conditions mimicking the CF lung environment and serum samples from CF patients with a clinical record of Bcc infection. 24 proteins of the Bcc strain B. cenocepacia J2315 were identified as immunoreactive, 19 here reported as immunogenic for the first time. Ten proteins were predicted as extracytoplasmic, 9 of them being conserved in Bcc genomes. The immunogenic Bcc extracytoplasmic proteins are potential targets for development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools to protect patients against the onset of chronic Bcc lung infections.