- 作者列表："Ke Q","Yang L","Cui Q","Diao W","Zhang Y","Xu M","He B
:Airway remodeling is a key pathological lesion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it leads to poorly reversible airway obstruction. Current pharmacological interventions are ineffective at controlling airway remodeling. To address this issue, we queried the Connectivity Map (cMap) database to screen for drug candidates that had the potential to dilate the bronchus and inhibit airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation. We identified ciprofibrate as a drug candidate. Ciprofibrate inhibited cigarette smoke extract-induced rat ASM cell contraction and proliferation in vitro. We exposed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to clean air or cigarette smoke (CS) and treated the rats with ciprofibrate. Ciprofibrate improved pulmonary function, inhibited airway hypercontraction, and ameliorated morphological small airway remodeling, including airway smooth muscle proliferation, in CS-exposed rats. Ciprofibrate also significantly reduced IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-17A and IL-18 expression, which are related to airway remodeling, in the sera of CS-exposed rats. These findings indicate that ciprofibrate could attenuate airway remodeling in CS-exposed rats.
气道重塑是慢性阻塞性肺疾病 (COPD) 的关键病理病变，并导致可逆性气道阻塞。目前的药物干预对控制气道重塑无效。为了解决这个问题，我们查询了连接图 (cMap) 数据库，以筛选有可能扩张支气管和抑制气道平滑肌 (ASM) 增殖的候选药物。我们确定环丙贝特为候选药物。环丙贝特在体外抑制香烟烟雾提取物诱导的大鼠 ASM 细胞收缩和增殖。我们将 Sprague-Dawley (SD) 大鼠暴露于清洁空气或香烟烟雾 (CS) 中，并用环丙贝特对大鼠进行处理。环丙贝特改善 CS 暴露大鼠的肺功能，抑制气道过度收缩，改善形态学小气道重塑，包括气道平滑肌增殖。环丙贝特还显著降低 CS 暴露大鼠血清中与气道重塑相关的 il-1 β 、 IL-12p70 、 IL-17A 和 IL-18 的表达。这些发现表明环丙贝特可以减轻 CS 暴露大鼠的气道重塑。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.