A Concentric Tube Robot System for Rigid Bronchoscopy: A Feasibility Study on Central Airway Obstruction Removal.
- 作者列表："Gafford JB","Webster S","Dillon N","Blum E","Hendrick R","Maldonado F","Gillaspie EA","Rickman OB","Herrell SD","Webster RJ 3rd
:New robotic systems have recently emerged to assist with peripheral lung access, but a robotic system for rigid bronchoscopy has yet to be developed. We describe a new robotic system that can deliver thin robotic manipulators through the ports of standard rigid bronchoscopes. The manipulators bend and elongate to provide maneuverability of surgical tools at the endoscope tip, without endoscope motion. We describe an initial feasibility study on the use of this system to bronchoscopically treat a central airway obstruction (CAO). CAO is prevalent and can be life-threatening in patients with large tumors, and conventional rigid bronchoscopic treatments place patients at risk of complications including broken teeth, neck trauma and damage to oropharyngeal structures due to significant forces induced by bronchoscope tilting and manipulation. In this study, we used an ex vivo ovine airway model to demonstrate the ability of a physician using the robotic system to efficiently remove tissue and restore the airway. Pre- and post-operative CT scans showed that the robot was able to reduce the degree of airway obstruction stenosis from 75 to 14% on average for five CAO resections performed in an ex vivo animal model. Using cadaver experiments, we demonstrated the potential of the robotic system to substantially reduce the intraoperative forces applied to the patient's head and neck (from 80.6 to 4.1 N). These preliminary results illustrate that CAO removal is feasible with our new rigid bronchoscopy robot system, and that this approach has the potential to reduce forces applied to the patient due to bronchoscope angulation, and thereby reduce the risk of complications encountered during CAO surgery.
: 新的机器人系统最近出现，以协助周围肺通路，但用于刚性支气管镜检查的机器人系统尚未开发。我们描述了一种新的机器人系统，可以通过标准刚性支气管镜的端口输送薄的机器人操纵器。操纵器弯曲和拉长以提供手术工具在内窥镜尖端的操纵性，没有内窥镜运动。我们描述了使用该系统进行支气管镜治疗中央气道阻塞 (CAO) 的初步可行性研究。CAO 在大肿瘤患者中普遍存在并可危及生命，常规硬性支气管镜治疗使患者面临包括牙齿断裂在内的并发症风险, 支气管镜倾斜和操作诱发的显著力引起的颈部创伤和口咽结构损伤。在这项研究中，我们使用离体绵羊气道模型来证明医生使用机器人系统有效去除组织和恢复气道的能力。术前和术后 ct扫描显示，在离体动物模型中进行的 5 次 CAO 切除，机器人能够将气道阻塞狭窄程度平均从 75 降至 14%。使用尸体实验，我们证明了机器人系统有可能大幅减少施加到患者头颈部的术中力 (从 80.6 到 4.1 N)。这些初步结果表明，使用我们新的刚性支气管镜机器人系统，CAO 去除是可行的，并且这种方法有可能减少由于支气管镜成角而施加给患者的力, 从而降低 CAO 手术中遇到的并发症风险。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.