- 作者列表："Stafler P","Nachalon Y","Stern Y","Leshno M","Mei Zahav M","Prais D","Kadmon G
OBJECTIVE:The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration (FBA) is challenging. In a previous study, we developed a computerized scoring system (CSS) to support decision-making. In the present study, we aimed to validate it on a further cohort. STUDY DESIGN:In this observational study, 100 children referred to the emergency department of a tertiary pediatric hospital for suspected FBA and treated according to standard protocol, were assigned a probability score using the CSS, between 0 and 1 (0, very low probability; 1, very high). The diagnosis of FBA was based on bronchoscopy, and if discharged without bronchoscopy, determined via telephone questionnaire, 4 to 6 months after discharge, supplemented by clinical re-evaluation and bronchoscopy, if respiratory symptoms persisted. RESULTS:Thirty-five out of 100 children (35%) underwent bronchoscopy with 12 of 35 (34%) positive for FBA. Sixty-five patients were discharged without bronchoscopy and completed a telephone questionnaire. Seven patients required clinical re-evaluation for persistent respiratory symptoms, in two out of them, additional bronchoscopies were performed and were negative. The CSS median probability score was 0.94 in patients with FBA, as compared to 0.73 in patients without FBA (P = .007). The CSS area under the receiver operating curve was 0.74. At a probability score threshold of 0.6, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 41%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The present validation study suggests a high sensitivity of the CSS for the identification of FBA in children. We suggest that it might aid decision-making with regard to the need for bronchoscopy in children presenting to the emergency room.
目的: 异物抽吸 (FBA) 的诊断具有挑战性。在以前的研究中，我们开发了一个计算机化的评分系统 (CSS) 来支持决策。在本研究中，我们旨在进一步队列验证。 研究设计: 在这项观察性研究中，100 名因疑似 FBA 而转诊到三级儿科医院急诊科并根据标准方案治疗的儿童，被使用 CSS 分配概率评分, 0 和 1 之间 (0，非常低的概率; 1，非常高)。FBA 的诊断以支气管镜检查为依据，若出院无支气管镜检查，通过电话问卷确定，出院后 4 至 6 个月，辅以临床再评估和支气管镜检查, 如果呼吸道症状持续存在。 结果: 100 例患儿中 35 例 (35%) 行支气管镜检查，35 例 FBA 阳性 12 例 (34%)。65 例患者未经支气管镜检查出院并完成电话问卷调查。7 例患者因持续呼吸道症状需要进行临床再评估，其中 2 例进行了额外的支气管镜检查，均为阴性。FBA 患者的 CSS 中位概率评分为 0.94，而无 FBA 患者为 0.73 (p = 007.007)。受试者工作曲线下 CSS 面积为 0.74。在 0.6 的概率评分阈值下，灵敏度和特异度分别为 100% 和 41%。 结论: 本验证研究提示 CSS 对儿童 FBA 的鉴定具有较高的敏感性。我们建议，这可能有助于在急诊室就诊的儿童中进行支气管镜检查的决策。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.