Cytologic features and diagnostic value of PeriView FLEX transbronchial needle aspiration targeting pulmonary nodules.
PeriView FLEX 经支气管针吸活检靶向肺结节的细胞学特征及诊断价值。
- 作者列表："Naso J","Bras J","Villamil C","Ionescu DN","Wang G","Shaipanich T","Beaudoin EL","Myers R","Lam S","Zhou C
BACKGROUND:Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of peripheral lung nodules can be difficult with conventional devices due to their limited flexibility. A promising new technology for accessing these lesions is the PeriView FLEX TBNA device, which has a flexible spiral-grooved needle. The present study reports the unique cytologic features, diagnostic value, and potential pitfalls of PeriView FLEX TBNA specimens. METHODS:This study retrospectively evaluates 113 consecutive cases of lung nodules sampled using the PeriView FLEX device with radial endobronchial ultrasound guidance. RESULTS:PeriView FLEX specimens were satisfactory for evaluation in 111 of 113 cases (98%). A diagnosis of malignancy was made on 64 specimens (57%), with 100% specificity and 70% sensitivity for malignancy. In 4 cases, the PeriView FLEX sample was the only specimen from bronchoscopy that was diagnostic of malignancy. Of the 64 PeriView FLEX specimens with malignant cells, 58 (91%) were adequate for immunohistochemistry and 44 (69%) were adequate for molecular genetic testing. Potential pitfalls were largely ameliorated through education regarding the unique features of PeriView FLEX samples, such as the expected abundance of anthracotic pigment and the paucity of lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS:TBNA using the PeriView FLEX device to sample pulmonary nodules contributed to the diagnostic value of bronchoscopy and tended to provide sufficient tissue for ancillary studies. Many of the possible pitfalls may be avoided through consideration of the unique cytologic features associated with this novel sampling method.
背景: 周围型肺结节的经支气管针吸活检 (TBNA) 由于其有限的灵活性，使用常规器械可能很困难。一种很有前途的获取这些病变的新技术是 PeriView FLEX TBNA 器械，它有一个柔性螺旋槽针。本研究报告了 PeriView FLEX TBNA 标本的独特细胞学特征、诊断价值和潜在陷阱。 方法: 本研究回顾性评估了使用 PeriView FLEX 装置在径向支气管内超声引导下采样的 113 例连续肺结节。 结果: 111 例中 113 例 (98%) 的 PeriView FLEX 标本评价满意。64 例 (57%) 标本诊断恶性肿瘤，特异性为 100%，敏感性为 70%。4 例中，PeriView FLEX 样本是唯一诊断恶性肿瘤的支气管镜标本。在 64 例具有恶性细胞的 PeriView FLEX 标本中，58 例 (91%) 足以进行免疫组化，44 例 (69%) 足以进行分子遗传学检测。通过对 PeriView FLEX 样本独特特征的教育，如预期的炭疽病色素丰度和淋巴细胞缺乏，潜在的陷阱在很大程度上得到改善。 结论: 使用 PeriView FLEX 装置取样肺结节的 TBNA 有助于支气管镜检查的诊断价值，并倾向于为辅助研究提供足够的组织。通过考虑与这种新型取样方法相关的独特细胞学特征，可以避免许多可能的陷阱。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.