- 作者列表："Porcedda G","Brambilla A","Favilli S","Murzi B","Mirabile L","Baggi R","Arcieri L
BACKGROUND: Left pulmonary artery (LPA) sling (PAS) is a vascular ring, which is frequently associated with long-segment tracheal stenosis (TS). Mortality rate in operated children is still high, especially in cases of severe tracheal hypoplasia and/or associated congenital heart defects (CHDs). We report our experience of treatment and follow-up in a pediatric cohort of patients affected by PAS with severe tracheobronchial involvement. METHODS: From 2005 to 2017, we enrolled 11 children diagnosed with PAS and congenital TS requiring surgical intervention. Echocardiography, computed tomography, and bronchoscopy were performed in all patients. Associated CHD were present in 5 (45%) patients. Tracheal reconstruction techniques included slide tracheoplasty (7/11; 63%), slide tracheoplasty and costal cartilage graft (2/11; 18%), and Hazekamp technique (2/11; 18%).Nine patients underwent LPA direct reimplantation and concomitant tracheoplasty; concomitant surgical repair for CHD was performed in three children. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 30 months (range: 3-75 months), a late mortality of 18% was registered; no early death occurred. Good flow through LPA could be documented in all patients. Ten children required operative bronchoscopies (mean: 16/patients) aimed at stent positioning/removal, treatment of granulomas, and tracheobronchial dilatation. CONCLUSIONS: Severe tracheobronchial stenosis and associated CHD were the main determinants for hospitalization time, intensive assistance, and repeated endoscopic procedures.Patients affected by PAS/TS complex require a careful management at high-specialized centers providing multidisciplinary team.Respiratory endoscopy may play a central role both in preoperatory assessment and in postoperative management of patients showing severe tracheobronchial involvement.
背景: 左肺动脉 (LPA) 吊带 (PAS) 是一个血管环，常与长段气管狭窄 (TS) 相关。手术患儿死亡率仍较高，尤其是严重气管发育不全和/或合并先天性心脏病 (CHDs) 的患儿。我们报告了我们在一个儿童队列中接受 PAS 影响的严重气管支气管受累患者的治疗和随访经验。 方法: 从 2005-2017年，我们入选了 11 名诊断为 PAS 和先天性 TS 需要手术干预的儿童。所有患者均行超声心动图、计算机断层扫描和支气管镜检查。5 例 (45%) 患者存在相关 CHD。气管重建技术包括滑动气管成形术 (7/11; 63%) 、滑动气管成形术和肋软骨移植 (2/11; 18%) 和 Hazekamp 技术 (2/11; 18%)。 9 例患者行 LPA 直接再植并同期气管成形术; 3 例患儿同时行 CHD 手术修补。 结果: 平均随访 30 个月 (范围: 3-75 个月)，晚期死亡率为 18%，无早期死亡发生。所有患者均可记录良好的 LPA 血流。10 例患儿需要手术支气管镜检查 (平均: 16 例/例)，目的是进行支架定位/取出、肉芽肿治疗和气管支气管扩张。 结论: 严重气管支气管狭窄和合并 CHD 是住院时间、强化辅助和重复内镜操作的主要决定因素。受 PAS/TS 复合体影响的患者需要在提供多学科团队的高专业中心进行精心管理。呼吸内镜检查可能在术前评估和术后处理显示严重气管支气管受累的患者中发挥核心作用。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.