Real-time augmented fluoroscopy-guided lung marking for thoracoscopic resection of small pulmonary nodules.
- 作者列表："Yang SM","Yu KL","Lin KH","Liu YL","Sun SE","Meng LH","Ko HJ
BACKGROUND:Small pulmonary nodule localization via an endobronchial route is safe and has fewer complications than that with the transthoracic needle approach, but accurate marking without a navigation system remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endobronchial dye marking using conventional bronchoscopy guided by cone-beam computed tomography-derived augmented fluoroscopy (CBCT-AF) for small pulmonary nodules. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 61 nodules in 51 patients who underwent preoperative CBCT-AF-guided bronchoscopic dye marking, followed by thoracoscopic resection, between July 2018 and March 2019. RESULTS:The median nodule size was 8.6 mm [interquartile range (IQR) 7.0-11.8 mm], and the median distance from the pleural space was 15.4 mm (IQR 10.6-23.1 mm). All nodules were identifiable on CBCT images and annotated for AF. The median bronchoscopy duration was 8.0 min (IQR 6.0-11.0 min), and the median fluoroscopy duration was 2.2 min (IQR 1.2-4.0 min). The median radiation exposure (expressed as the dose area product) was 2337.2 µGym2 (IQR 1673.8-4468.8 µGym2). All nodules were successfully marked and resected, and the median duration from localization to surgery was 16.4 h (IQR 4.2-20.7 h). There were no localization-related complications or operative mortality, and the median length of the postoperative stay was 4 days (IQR 3-4 days). CONCLUSIONS:Bronchoscopic dye marking under CBCT-AF guidance before thoracoscopic surgery was safely conducted with satisfactory outcomes in our initial experience.
背景: 经支气管内途径的肺小结节定位是安全的，并发症较少，但没有导航系统的精确标记仍然具有挑战性。我们旨在评价使用锥形束计算机断层扫描衍生增强透视 (CBCT-AF) 引导的常规支气管镜对肺小结节进行支气管内染料标记的安全性和有效性。 方法: 我们回顾性分析了 51 例患者的 61 个结节的临床记录，这些患者在 2018年7月至 2019年3月期间接受了术前 CBCT-AF 引导下支气管镜染色标记，随后接受了胸腔镜切除术。 结果: 中位结节大小为 8.6毫米 [四分位距 (IQR) 7.0-11.8毫米]，距胸膜腔的中位距离为 15.4毫米 (IQR 10.6-23.1毫米)。所有结节在 CBCT 图像上均可识别，并注释了 AF。支气管镜检查中位时间为 8.0 min (IQR 6.0-11.0 min)，透视检查中位时间为 2.2 min (IQR 1.2-4.0 min)。中位辐射暴露 (以剂量面积乘积表示) 为 2337.2 µ gym2 (IQR 1673.8-4468.8 µ gym2)。所有结节均成功标记并切除，定位至手术的中位持续时间为 16.4 h (IQR 4.2-20.7 h)。无定位相关并发症或手术死亡率，术后中位住院时间为 4 天 (IQR 3-4 天)。 结论: 在我们最初的经验中，胸腔镜手术前在 CBCT-AF 引导下进行支气管镜染色标记是安全的，结果令人满意。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.