- 作者列表："Sunil VR","Vayas KN","Abramova EV","Rancourt R","Cervelli JA","Malaviya R","Goedken M","Venosa A","Gow AJ","Laskin JD","Laskin DL
:Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a cytotoxic vesicant known to cause acute lung injury which progresses to fibrosis. Herein, we developed a murine model of NM-induced pulmonary toxicity with the goal of assessing inflammatory mechanisms of injury. C57BL/6J mice were euthanized 1-28 d following intratracheal exposure to NM (0.08 mg/kg) or PBS control. NM caused progressive alveolar epithelial thickening, perivascular inflammation, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, interstitial fibroplasia and fibrosis, peaking 14 d post exposure. Enlarged foamy macrophages were also observed in the lung 14 d post NM, along with increased numbers of microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Following NM exposure, rapid and prolonged increases in BAL cells, protein, total phospholipids and surfactant protein (SP)-D were also detected. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD11b+Ly6G-F4/80+Ly6Chi proinflammatory macrophages accumulated in the lung after NM, peaking at 3 d. This was associated with macrophage expression of HMGB1 and TNFα in histologic sections. CD11b+Ly6G-F4/80+Ly6Clo anti-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic macrophages also increased in the lung after NM peaking at 14 d, a time coordinate with increases in TGFβ expression and fibrosis. NM exposure also resulted in alterations in pulmonary mechanics including increases in tissue elastance and decreases in compliance and static compliance, most prominently at 14 d. These findings demonstrate that NM induces structural and inflammatory changes in the lung that correlate with aberrations in pulmonary function. This mouse model will be useful for mechanistic studies of mustard lung injury and for assessing potential countermeasures.
氮芥 (NM) 是一种细胞毒性发泡剂，已知可引起急性肺损伤进展为纤维化。在此，我们开发了 NM 诱导的肺毒性小鼠模型，目的是评估损伤的炎症机制。C57BL/6J 小鼠气管内暴露于 NM (0.08 mg/kg) 或 PBS 对照后 1-28 d 安乐死。NM 引起进行性肺泡上皮增厚，血管周围炎症，细支气管上皮增生，间质纤维化生和纤维化，暴露后 14 d 达到高峰。NM 后 14 d 肺内也观察到膨大的泡沫状巨噬细胞，同时支气管肺泡灌洗液 (BAL) 中微粒数量增加。NM 暴露后，BAL 细胞、蛋白、总磷脂和表面活性蛋白 (SP)-D 快速和延长增加。流式细胞分析显示，CD11b + Ly6G-F4/80 + Ly6Chi 促炎巨噬细胞在 NM 后聚集在肺内，3 d 达到高峰。这与巨噬细胞 HMGB1 和 tnf α 在组织学切片中的表达有关。CD11b + Ly6G-F4/80 + Ly6Clo 抗炎/促纤维化巨噬细胞在 14d NM 峰值后也增加，与 tgf β 表达增加和纤维化相协调。NM 暴露也导致肺力学改变，包括组织弹性增加，顺应性和静态顺应性降低，在 14 d 最显著。这些发现证明 NM 诱导肺部结构和炎症变化，与肺功能畸变相关。该小鼠模型将有助于芥末肺损伤的机理研究和评估潜在的对策。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To asses the clinical course in RA-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients with and without rituximab (RTX). The influence of other variables was also evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted in RA diagnosed with ILD from 2007 until 2018 in Madrid. Patients were included in a registry [pNEumology RhEumatology Autoinmune diseases (NEREA)] from the time of ILD diagnosis. The main endpoint was functional respiratory impairment (FI), when there was a decline ≥5% in the predicted forced vital capacity compared with the previous one. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and in follow-up visits every 6-12 months. The independent variable was therapy with RTX. Covariables included sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and other therapies. Survival techniques were used to estimate the incidence rate (IR) and 95% CI of functional impairment, expressed per 100 patient-semesters. Cox multivariate regression models were run to examine the influence of RTX and other covariates on FI. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) and CI. RESULTS:A total of 68 patients were included. FI occurred in 42 patients [IR 23.5 (95% CI 19, 29.1)] and 50% of them had FI within 1.75 years of an ILD diagnosis. A multivariate analysis showed that RTX exposure resulted in a lower risk of FI compared with non-exposure [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31, 0.85)]. Interstitial pneumonia, glucocorticoids, disease activity and duration also influenced FI. CONCLUSION:RA-ILD patients deteriorate over time, with the median time free of impairment being <2 years. Patients exposed to RTX had a higher probability of remaining free of FI compared with other therapies. Other factors have also been identified. Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, observational study, rituximab and prognosis
METHODS:The safety of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody for patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of preexisting ILD on anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the association of preexisting ILD with the incidence, radiographic pattern, and outcome of pneumonitis in NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody. A total of 331 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 17 had preexisting ILD. The incidence of pneumonitis was higher among the patients with preexisting ILD than among those without preexisting ILD (29% vs. 10%, P = 0.027). The distributions of the CT appearances at the onset of anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis were as follows: for the patients with preexisting ILD, two patients (40%) had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), one patient each with organizing pneumonia-like (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and other patterns (20% each); for the patients without preexisting ILD, 19 patients (61%) had OP, 8 (26%) had HP, 3 (10%) had DAD, and 1 (3.2%) had other patterns. The median onset time from the initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment until the development of pneumonitis was 1.3 months (range 0.3–2.1 months) for the patients with preexisting ILD and 2.3 months (range 0.2–14.6 months) for the patients without preexisting ILD. Careful attention to the development of pneumonitis is needed, especially within the first 3 months after the start of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, when using anti-PD-1 antibody to treat patients with preexisting ILD.
METHODS::Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are ubiquitous multidrug resistant organisms and opportunistic pathogens capable of causing life threatening lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. No effective therapies are currently available to eradicate Bcc bacteria from CF patients, as these organisms are inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antimicrobials. An immunoproteomics approach was used to identify Bcc proteins that stimulate the humoral immune response of the CF host, using bacterial cells grown under conditions mimicking the CF lung environment and serum samples from CF patients with a clinical record of Bcc infection. 24 proteins of the Bcc strain B. cenocepacia J2315 were identified as immunoreactive, 19 here reported as immunogenic for the first time. Ten proteins were predicted as extracytoplasmic, 9 of them being conserved in Bcc genomes. The immunogenic Bcc extracytoplasmic proteins are potential targets for development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools to protect patients against the onset of chronic Bcc lung infections.