Aspergillus sensitization in bronchial asthma: A separate phenotype.
- 作者列表："Rajagopal TV","Kant S","Verma SK","Kushwaha RAS","Kumar S","Garg R","Srivastava A","Bajaj DK
:Background: Bronchial asthma is one of the common chronic respiratory illnesses worldwide, with a global disease burden that affects approximately 300 million individuals. It affects 5-10% of the population in developed countries. India constitutes approximately one-tenth of the global disease burden, where an estimated 7 million children are affected by this illness. Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. In India, the most important endogenous stimuli is considered to be fungal antigens from the genus, Aspergillus. Positive skin reactions to Aspergillus fumigatus among individuals with atopic asthma is 10 to 20%; however, a causal relationship is yet to be established. A separate entity, termed "severe asthma with fungal sensitivity," is often used to describe milder allergic reactions to fungal aeroallergens that has fungal sensitization as the starting point of pathogenesis than allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 57 patients with bronchial asthma were prospectively enrolled and evaluated for Aspergillus sensitization and its impact on asthma control. Results: Symptoms were well controlled in a majority of patients (57.89%) and partly controlled in 14.04%. Uncontrolled symptoms were observed in only 28.07% of patients. The proportion of patients with uncontrolled symptoms was higher among patients who were sensitized (45.00%) compared with patients who were not sensitized (18.92%). The proportion of patients with well-controlled symptoms was higher in individuals who were not sensitized compared with individuals who were sensitized (62.16% versus 50.00%). Conclusion: The severity of asthma was associated with fungal sensitization, with sensitization to Aspergillus as a part of the pathogenesis. Aspergillus sensitization is significantly associated with bronchiectasis, even in the absence of clinical features.
背景: 支气管哮喘是世界范围内常见的慢性呼吸系统疾病之一，全球约 3亿人受到疾病负担的影响。它影响了发达国家 5-10% 的人口。印度约占全球疾病负担的 10分之1，估计有 700万儿童受到这种疾病的影响。哮喘的气道高反应性或支气管高反应性是对许多外源性和内源性刺激的夸大反应。在印度，最重要的内源性刺激被认为是来自曲霉菌属的真菌抗原。特应性哮喘个体对烟曲霉菌的阳性皮肤反应为 10 ~ 20%; 然而，因果关系尚未确定。一个单独的实体，称为 “具有真菌敏感性的严重哮喘”，通常用于描述对真菌空气变应原的轻度过敏反应，以真菌致敏作为发病机制的起点，而不是过敏性支气管肺曲霉病。方法: 前瞻性纳入 57 例支气管哮喘患者，评估曲霉菌致敏及其对哮喘控制的影响。结果: 大多数患者 (57.89%) 症状得到良好控制，14.04% 的患者症状得到部分控制。仅在 28.07% 的患者中观察到未控制的症状。与未致敏患者 (45.00%) 相比，致敏患者中症状未控制患者的比例较高 (18.92%)。与致敏个体相比，未致敏个体症状控制良好的患者比例较高 (62.16% 对 50.00%)。结论: 哮喘的严重程度与真菌致敏有关，对曲霉菌的致敏是发病机制的一部分。即使在没有临床特征的情况下，曲霉菌致敏也与支气管扩张显著相关。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.