Accuracy of WatchPAT for the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
- 作者列表："Jen R","Orr JE","Li Y","DeYoung P","Smales E","Malhotra A","Owens RL
:The co-existence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), termed the overlap syndrome (OVS), is associated with adverse outcomes that may be reversed with treatment. However, diagnosis is limited by the apparent need for in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). WatchPAT is a portable diagnostic device that is validated for the diagnosis of OSA that might represent an attractive tool for the diagnosis of OVS.Subjects with established COPD were recruited from a general population. Subjects underwent PSG and simultaneous recording with WatchPAT. Pulmonary function testing and questionnaires were also performed.A total of 36 subjects were recruited and valid data was obtained on 33 (age 63 ± 7, BMI 28 ± 7, 61% male, FEV1 56 ± 20% predicted). There was no significant difference in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) between PSG and WatchPAT (19 ± 20 versus 20 ± 15 events/h; mean difference 2(-2, 5) events/h; p = 0.381). The AHI was not significantly different in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) determined by PSG versus REM and NREM determined by WatchPAT. WatchPAT slightly overestimated total and REM sleep time, and sleep efficiency. The sensitivity of WatchPAT at an AHI cut-off of ≥5, ≥15, and ≥30 events/h for corresponding PSG AHI cut-offs was 95.8, 92.3, and 88.9, respectively; specificity was 55, 65.0, and 95.8, respectively.WatchPAT is able to determine OSA reliably in patients with COPD. The availability of this additional diagnostic modality may lead to improved detection of OVS, which may in turn lead to improved outcomes for a group of COPD patients at high risk of poor outcomes.
: 慢性阻塞性肺疾病 (COPD) 和阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停 (OSA) 并存，称为重叠综合征 (OVS), 与治疗可能逆转的不良结局相关。然而，诊断受到实验室多导睡眠图 (PSG) 明显需要的限制。WatchPAT 是一种便携式诊断设备，可用于 OSA 的诊断，可能是 OVS 诊断的有吸引力的工具。从普通人群中招募了 COPD 确诊的受试者。受试者接受 PSG 和 WatchPAT 同时记录。还进行了肺功能检测和问卷调查。共招募 36 名受试者，在 33 (年龄 63 ± 7，BMI 28 ± 7，61% 男性, 预计 FEV1 56 ± 20%)。PSG 和 WatchPAT 的呼吸暂停低通气指数 (AHI) 无显著差异 (19 ± 20 与 20 ± 15 次/h); 平均差 2 (-2,5) 事件/h; p = 0.381)。PSG 测定的快速眼动 (REM) 和非快速眼动 (NREM) 与 WatchPAT 测定的 REM 和 NREM 的 AHI 无显著差异。WatchPAT 稍微高估了总睡眠时间和 REM 睡眠时间，以及睡眠效率。在 AHI 临界值 ≥ 5 、 ≥ 15 和 ≥ 30 次事件/h 时，WatchPAT 对相应 PSG AHI 临界值的敏感性分别为 95.8 、 92.3 和 88.9; 特异性分别为 55 、 65.0 和 95.8。 watchPAT 能够可靠地确定 COPD 患者的 OSA。这种额外诊断方式的可用性可能导致 OVS 检测的改善，这反过来可能导致一组预后不良的高风险 COPD 患者的预后改善。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miR-193a-3p in cardiac injury induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-193a-3p in intermittent hypoxia(IH)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury. RESULTS:In this study, we found that IH significantly decreased viability but enhanced cell apoptosis. Concurrently, the miR-193a-3p expression level was increased in HUVECs after IH. Subsequent experiments showed that IH-induced injury was ameliorated through miR-193a-3p silence. Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (FAIM2) was predicted by bioinformatics analysis and further identified as a direct target gene of miR-193a-3p. Interestingly, the effect of miR-193a-3p inhibition under IH could be reversed by down-regulating FAIM2 expression. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our study first revealed that miR-193a-3p inhibition could protect HUVECs against intermittent hypoxia-induced damage by negatively regulating FAIM2. These findings could advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for OSA-related cardiac injury. METHODS:We exposed HUVECs to IH condition; the expression levels of miR-193a-3p were detected by RT-qPCR. Cell viability, and the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins were examined via CCK-8, and western blotting, respectively. Target genes of miR-193a-3p were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay.
METHODS:RATIONALE:Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, a sleep breathing disorder in which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is the primary pathology, is associated with multiple cardiovascular diseases. However, whether and how CIH may affect cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether CIH exposure at different periods of MI may exacerbate post-MI heart failure and to identify the mechanisms underlying CIH-exacerbated post-MI remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS:Adult male mice were subjected to MI (4 weeks) with and without CIH (4 or 8 weeks). CIH before MI (CIH+MI) had no significant effect on post-MI remodeling. However, double CIH exposure (CIH+MI+CIH) or CIH only during the MI period (MI+CIH) significantly exacerbated pathological remodeling and reduced survival rate. Mechanistically, CIH activated TGF-β (tumor growth factor-β)/Smad (homologs of both the Drosophila protein MAD and the C. elegans protein SMA) signaling and enhanced cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition, markedly increasing post-MI cardiac fibrosis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that, among 15 genes significantly downregulated (MI+CIH versus MI), Ctrp9 (a novel cardioprotective cardiokine) was one of the most significantly inhibited genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction/Western analysis confirmed that cardiomyocyte CTRP9 expression was significantly reduced in MI+CIH mice. RNA-sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified that microRNA-214-3p is a novel Ctrp9 targeting miRNA. Its upregulation is responsible for Ctrp9 gene suppression in MI+CIH. Finally, AAV9 (adeno-associated virus 9)-mediated cardiac-specific CTRP9 overexpression or rCTRP9 (recombinated CTRP9) administration inhibited TGF-β/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, attenuated interstitial fibrosis, improved cardiac function, and enhanced survival rate in MI+CIH animals. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides the first evidence that MI+CIH upregulates miR-214-3p, suppresses cardiac CTRP9 (C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9) expression, and exacerbates cardiac remodeling, suggesting that CTRP9 may be a novel therapeutic target against pathological remodeling in MI patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Sleep apnea (SA) is prevalent among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and increases cardiovascular risk. A previous study showed that 1 month of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) reduced severity of SA in patients with CAD by reducing fluid accumulation in the legs during the day and the amount of fluid shifting rostrally into the neck overnight. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CR will lead to longer-term attenuation of SA in patients with CAD. METHODS:Fifteen patients with CAD and SA who had participated in a 1-month randomized trial of the effects of exercise training on SA were followed up until they completed 6 months of CR (age: 65 ± 10 years; body mass index: 27.0 ± 3.9 kg/m²; apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 39.0 ± 16.7). The AHI was evaluated at baseline by polysomnography and then at 6 months by portable monitoring at home. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was evaluated via a graded cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and 6 months later. The 6-month CR program included once weekly, 90-minute, in-facility exercise sessions, and 4 days per week at-home exercise sessions. RESULTS:After 6 months of CR, there was a 54% reduction in the AHI (30.5 ± 15.2 to 14.1 ± 7.5, P < .001). Body mass index remained unchanged, but VO2peak increased by 27% (20.0 ± 6.1 to 26.0 ± 8.9 mL/kg/min, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS:Participation in CR is associated with a significant long-term decrease in the severity of SA. This finding suggests that attenuation of SA by exercise could be a mechanism underlying reduced mortality following participation in CR in patients with CAD and SA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.controlled-trials.com with identifier number ISRCTN50108373.