DISE-PAP: A Method for Troubleshooting Residual AHI Elevation Despite Positive Pressure Therapy.
DISE-PAP: 一种排除尽管正压治疗仍有残余 AHI 升高的方法。
- 作者列表："Freiser ME","Schell AE","Soose RJ
None:Despite excellent positive airway pressure (PAP) adherence, a subset of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients experience residual elevation of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) during PAP application provides an opportunity to examine the anatomic effect of PAP therapy on the upper airway and to troubleshoot refractory residual AHI elevation. We present a patient who demonstrated persistent moderate-severe AHI elevation during titration polysomnogram and subsequent data download reports despite numerous mask refits, chin strap, positional modifications, and multiple pressure and mode adjustments in both the clinic and sleep laboratory settings. DISE was performed with the flexible endoscope passed through the PAP circuit into the upper airway. Jaw laxity and associated mandibular retrusion at sleep onset was found to result in a complete fixed tongue base obstruction that PAP therapy, delivered via the patient's oronasal interface, was unable to overcome. Various strategies to overcome these obstacles are discussed.
无: 尽管气道正压通气 (PAP) 依从性良好，但一部分阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停 (OSA) 患者经历了呼吸暂停低通气指数 (AHI) 的残余升高。PAP 应用过程中的药物诱导睡眠内镜 (DISE) 为检查 PAP 治疗对上气道的解剖效应和排除难治性残余 AHI 升高提供了机会。我们介绍了一名患者，尽管进行了多次面罩改装、下颏带、位置修改，但在滴定多导睡眠图和随后的数据下载报告中表现出持续的中重度 AHI 升高, 以及诊所和睡眠实验室设置中的多重压力和模式调整。DISE 通过 PAP 回路进入上气道。发现睡眠开始时下颌松弛和相关的下颌退缩导致完全固定的舌根阻塞，经患者口鼻界面递送的 PAP 治疗无法克服。讨论了克服这些障碍的各种策略。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miR-193a-3p in cardiac injury induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-193a-3p in intermittent hypoxia(IH)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury. RESULTS:In this study, we found that IH significantly decreased viability but enhanced cell apoptosis. Concurrently, the miR-193a-3p expression level was increased in HUVECs after IH. Subsequent experiments showed that IH-induced injury was ameliorated through miR-193a-3p silence. Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (FAIM2) was predicted by bioinformatics analysis and further identified as a direct target gene of miR-193a-3p. Interestingly, the effect of miR-193a-3p inhibition under IH could be reversed by down-regulating FAIM2 expression. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our study first revealed that miR-193a-3p inhibition could protect HUVECs against intermittent hypoxia-induced damage by negatively regulating FAIM2. These findings could advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for OSA-related cardiac injury. METHODS:We exposed HUVECs to IH condition; the expression levels of miR-193a-3p were detected by RT-qPCR. Cell viability, and the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins were examined via CCK-8, and western blotting, respectively. Target genes of miR-193a-3p were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay.
METHODS:RATIONALE:Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, a sleep breathing disorder in which chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is the primary pathology, is associated with multiple cardiovascular diseases. However, whether and how CIH may affect cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether CIH exposure at different periods of MI may exacerbate post-MI heart failure and to identify the mechanisms underlying CIH-exacerbated post-MI remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS:Adult male mice were subjected to MI (4 weeks) with and without CIH (4 or 8 weeks). CIH before MI (CIH+MI) had no significant effect on post-MI remodeling. However, double CIH exposure (CIH+MI+CIH) or CIH only during the MI period (MI+CIH) significantly exacerbated pathological remodeling and reduced survival rate. Mechanistically, CIH activated TGF-β (tumor growth factor-β)/Smad (homologs of both the Drosophila protein MAD and the C. elegans protein SMA) signaling and enhanced cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition, markedly increasing post-MI cardiac fibrosis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that, among 15 genes significantly downregulated (MI+CIH versus MI), Ctrp9 (a novel cardioprotective cardiokine) was one of the most significantly inhibited genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction/Western analysis confirmed that cardiomyocyte CTRP9 expression was significantly reduced in MI+CIH mice. RNA-sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified that microRNA-214-3p is a novel Ctrp9 targeting miRNA. Its upregulation is responsible for Ctrp9 gene suppression in MI+CIH. Finally, AAV9 (adeno-associated virus 9)-mediated cardiac-specific CTRP9 overexpression or rCTRP9 (recombinated CTRP9) administration inhibited TGF-β/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, attenuated interstitial fibrosis, improved cardiac function, and enhanced survival rate in MI+CIH animals. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides the first evidence that MI+CIH upregulates miR-214-3p, suppresses cardiac CTRP9 (C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9) expression, and exacerbates cardiac remodeling, suggesting that CTRP9 may be a novel therapeutic target against pathological remodeling in MI patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Sleep apnea (SA) is prevalent among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and increases cardiovascular risk. A previous study showed that 1 month of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) reduced severity of SA in patients with CAD by reducing fluid accumulation in the legs during the day and the amount of fluid shifting rostrally into the neck overnight. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CR will lead to longer-term attenuation of SA in patients with CAD. METHODS:Fifteen patients with CAD and SA who had participated in a 1-month randomized trial of the effects of exercise training on SA were followed up until they completed 6 months of CR (age: 65 ± 10 years; body mass index: 27.0 ± 3.9 kg/m²; apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 39.0 ± 16.7). The AHI was evaluated at baseline by polysomnography and then at 6 months by portable monitoring at home. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was evaluated via a graded cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and 6 months later. The 6-month CR program included once weekly, 90-minute, in-facility exercise sessions, and 4 days per week at-home exercise sessions. RESULTS:After 6 months of CR, there was a 54% reduction in the AHI (30.5 ± 15.2 to 14.1 ± 7.5, P < .001). Body mass index remained unchanged, but VO2peak increased by 27% (20.0 ± 6.1 to 26.0 ± 8.9 mL/kg/min, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS:Participation in CR is associated with a significant long-term decrease in the severity of SA. This finding suggests that attenuation of SA by exercise could be a mechanism underlying reduced mortality following participation in CR in patients with CAD and SA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.controlled-trials.com with identifier number ISRCTN50108373.