Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Induces Tonsillar Follicular T Helper Cell Responses That Correlate With Antibody Induction.
流感减毒活疫苗诱导与抗体诱导相关的扁桃体滤泡 T 辅助细胞反应。
- 作者列表："Lartey S","Zhou F","Brokstad KA","Mohn KG","Slettevoll SA","Pathirana RD","Cox RJ
BACKGROUND:Influenza remains a major threat to public health. Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) have been shown to be effective, particularly in children. Follicular T helper (TFH) cells provide B-cell help and are crucial for generating long-term humoral immunity. However the role of TFH cells in LAIV-induced immune responses is unknown. METHODS:We collected tonsils, plasma, and saliva samples from children and adults receiving LAIV prior to tonsillectomy. We measured influenza-specific TFH-cell responses after LAIV by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Systemic and local antibody responses were analysed by hemagglutination inhibition assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:We report that LAIV induced early (3-7 days post-vaccination) activation of tonsillar follicles and influenza-specific TFH-cell (CXCR5+CD57+CD4+ T cell) responses in children, and to a lesser extent in adults. Serological analyses showed that LAIV elicited rapid (day 14) and long-term (up to 1 year post-vaccination) antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition, influenza-specific IgG) in children, but not adults. There was an inverse correlation between pre-existing influenza-specific salivary IgA concentrations and tonsillar TFH-cell responses, and a positive correlation between tonsillar TFH-cell and systemic IgG induction after LAIV. CONCLUSIONS:Our data, taken together, demonstrate an important role of tonsillar TFH cells in LAIV-induced immunity in humans.
背景: 流感仍然是公共卫生的主要威胁。流感减毒活疫苗 (LAIV) 已被证明是有效的，特别是在儿童中。滤泡辅助性 T 细胞 (TFH) 细胞提供 b细胞帮助，对产生长期体液免疫至关重要。然而，TFH 细胞在 LAIV 诱导的免疫反应中的作用尚不清楚。 方法: 我们收集了接受 LAIV 的儿童和成人扁桃体切除术前的扁桃体、血浆和唾液样本。我们通过流式细胞术和免疫组织化学检测 LAIV 后流感特异性 TFH 细胞反应。通过血凝抑制试验和酶联免疫吸附试验分析全身和局部抗体反应。 结果: 我们报道 LAIV 诱导扁桃体滤泡和流感特异性 TFH 细胞 (CXCR5 + CD57 + CD4 + T 细胞) 的早期 (接种后 3-7 天) 激活儿童反应，成人反应较小。血清学分析显示，LAIV 在儿童中引起快速 (第 14 天) 和长期 (疫苗接种后 1 年) 抗体反应 (血凝抑制，流感特异性 IgG), 但不是成年人。在 LAIV 后，预先存在的流感特异性唾液 IgA 浓度与扁桃体 TFH 细胞反应之间呈负相关，扁桃体 TFH 细胞与全身 IgG 诱导之间呈正相关。 结论: 我们的数据一起证明了扁桃体 TFH 细胞在 LAIV 诱导的人类免疫中的重要作用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.