In-depth phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulating during the 2016-2017 season revealed egg-adaptive mutations of vaccine strains.
2016-2017 季节流行的甲型 H3N2 流感病毒血凝素基因的深入系统进化分析发现了疫苗株的卵适应性突变。
- 作者列表："Galli C","Orsi A","Pariani E","Lai PL","Guarona G","Pellegrinelli L","Ebranati E","Icardi G","Panatto D
:Objectives: The authors conducted an in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of A(H3N2) identified during the 2016-2017 season to compare the circulating strains with both the egg-derived and cell-derived 2016-2017 candidate vaccine virus (CVV).Methods: 162 HA1 sequences of H3N2 viruses identified during the 2016-2017 season were phylogenetically analyzed and compared with egg-/cell-derived CVV. The predicted vaccine efficacy (pVE) of egg-/cell-derived CVV against field strains was quantified by Pepitope model.Results: All H3N2 belonged to 3C.2a genetic clade, most (80.2%) to 3C.2a1 sub-clade. Several H3N2 variants circulated in the 2016-2017 season. HA sequences of field H3N2 strains displayed greater identity with cell-derived CVV than with egg-derived CVV. The amino acid substitutions in positions 160 and 194 identified in egg-derived CVV affected the pVE, which was lower for egg-derived CVV than for cell-derived CVV.Conclusions: The results suggested that reduced vaccine effectiveness observed in 2016-2017 season was probably due to changes in the HA of vaccine strains acquired upon adaptation in eggs, which are the basis of most manufacturing systems currently used globally. Egg-free vaccine manufacturing systems would be advisable to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines.
目的: 作者对 A (H3N2) 血凝素 (HA) 基因进行了深入的系统发育分析在 2016-2017 季节鉴定，比较循环毒株与卵源性和细胞源性 2016-2017 候选疫苗病毒 (CVV)。方法:对 162-2016 季节鉴定的 H3N2 病毒的 2017 个 HA1 序列进行了系统发育分析，并与卵/细胞来源的 CVV 进行了比较。用 Pepitope 模型定量鸡蛋/细胞源 CVV 对田间毒株的预测疫苗效力 (pVE)。结果: 所有 H3N2 属于 3 个 C.2a 遗传分支，大多数 (80.2%) 到 3 个 C.2a1 亚分支。几个 H3N2 变体在 2016-2017 季节流传。Field H3N2 菌株的 HA 序列与细胞来源的 CVV 的同源性大于与卵来源的 CVV。在卵源性 CVV 中确定的 160 和 194 位的氨基酸置换影响 pVE，卵源性 CVV 的 pVE 低于细胞源性 CVV。结论: 结果表明，在 2016-2017 季节观察到的疫苗有效性降低可能是由于在鸡蛋中适应后获得的疫苗株 HA 的变化,这是目前全球使用的大多数制造系统的基础。无蛋疫苗制造系统将是可取的，以提高流感疫苗的有效性。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.