具有广谱抗甲型流感病毒活性的细胞 microRNA miR-188-3p 的鉴定
- 作者列表："Huan Cui","Chunmao Zhang","Zongzheng Zhao","Cheng Zhang","Yingying Fu","Jiaming Li","Guanxi Chen","Mengxi Lai","Zhixiang Li","Shishan Dong","Ligong Chen","Zhaoyang Li","Chengyu Wang","Juxiang Liu","Yuwei Gao","Zhendong Guo
Abstract Background Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and antigenic shift of IAV. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. Cellular miRNAs may directly target virus to inhibit its infection and be developed as potential anti-virus drugs. Methods In this study, we established a broad-spectrum anti-IAV miRNA screening method using miRanda software. The screened miRNAs were further verified by luciferase assay, viral protein expression assay and virus replication assay. Results Five cellular miRNAs (miR-188-3p, miR-345-5p, miR-3183, miR-15-3p and miR-769-3p), targeting 99.96, 95.31, 92.9, 94.58 and 97.24% of human IAV strains recorded in NCBI, respectively, were chosen for further experimental verification. Finally, we found that miR-188-3p downregulated PB2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels by directly targeted the predicted sites on PB2 and effectively inhibited the replication of IAV (H1N1, H5N6 and H7N9) in A549 cells. Conclusions This is the first report screening cellular miRNAs that broad-spectrum inhibiting IAV infection. These findings suggested that cellular miR-188-3p could be used for RNAi-mediated anti-IAV therapeutic strategies.
文摘背景甲型流感病毒 (IAV) 持续对公众健康构成严重威胁。由于 IAV 持续的抗原漂移和抗原漂移，目前对 IAV 的预防和治疗干预需要频繁的变化。新出现的证据表明，宿主 microRNAs (miRNAs) 在错综复杂的宿主-病原体相互作用网络中发挥关键作用。细胞 miRNAs 可能直接靶向病毒抑制其感染，被开发为潜在病毒药物。方法本研究中，我们利用 miRanda 软件建立了广谱抗 IAV miRNA 筛选方法。筛选出的 miRNAs 进一步通过荧光素酶检测、病毒蛋白表达检测和病毒复制检测进行验证。结果 5 种细胞 miRNAs (miR-188-3p 、 miR-345-5p 、 miR-3183 、 miR-15-3p 和 miR-769-3p)，分别靶向 NCBI 中记录的 99.96 、 95.31 、 92.9 和 94.58 的人 IAV 株, 被选中进行进一步的实验验证。最后，我们发现 miR-188-3p 通过直接靶向 PB2 上的预测位点，在 mRNA 和蛋白水平下调 PB2 的表达，并有效抑制 IAV (H1N1，H5N6 和 H7N9) 的复制在 A549 细胞中。结论这是首次报道筛选广谱抑制 IAV 感染的细胞 miRNAs。这些发现提示细胞 miR-188-3p 可用于 RNAi 介导的抗 IAV 治疗策略。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.