Probing the effect of quercetin 3-glucoside from Dianthus superbus L against influenza virus infection- In vitro and in silico biochemical and toxicological screening.
- 作者列表："Nile SH","Kim DH","Nile A","Park GS","Gansukh E","Kai G
:Investigation of antiviral and cytotoxic effect of quercetin 3-glucoside (Q3G) from Dianthus superbus L over influenza virus infection and replication were studied. Moreover, anti-influenza mechanism was screened by time-dependent antiviral assay, virus-induced symptoms and related gene expressions. The blockade of cap-binding domain of polymerase basic protein subunit were analysed by molecular docking study. The Q3G demonstrated potent antiviral activity showing 4.93, 6.43, 9.94, 8.3, and 7.1 μg/mL of IC50 for A/PR/8/34, A/Victoria/3/75, A/WS/33, B/Maryland/1/59, and B/Lee/40, respectively. The cellular toxicity of Q3G and oseltamivir (control) were tested and >100 μg/mL of CC50 value considered as nontoxic. Influenza A virus infection induced a higher ROS production, however potentially reduced by Q3G treatment and significantly blocked virus infection induced acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Moreover, Q3G has no inhibitory effect for neuraminidase activity but blocked virus replication through time dependent assay and showed more competitive binding affinity (-8.0 kcal/mal) than GTP (-7.0 kcal/mol) to block polymerase basic protein-2 subunit of influenza virus. Q3G from D. superbus showed potent antiviral activity against influenza A and B viruses with suppressive effect on virus-induced cellular ROS generation and AVO formation. Thus, this study provided a new line of research for Q3G to develop possible natural anti-influenza drug.
研究了石菖蒲槲皮素 3-葡萄糖苷 (Q3G) 对流感病毒感染和复制的抗病毒和细胞毒作用。此外，通过时间依赖性抗病毒试验、病毒诱导症状和相关基因表达筛选抗流感机制。通过分子对接研究分析聚合酶碱性蛋白亚基帽结合域的阻断。Q3G 表现出强大的抗病毒活性，显示 4.93，6.43，9.94，8.3 和 7.1 μ g/mL 的 IC50 为 A/PR/8/34，A/Victoria/3/75,分别为 A/WS/33 、 B/Maryland/1/59 和 B/Lee/40。Q3G 和奥司他韦 (对照) 的细胞毒性进行了测试，并> 100 μ g/mL 的 CC50 值被认为是无毒的。甲型流感病毒感染诱导了较高的 ROS 产生，然而通过 Q3G 处理可能减少，并显著阻断病毒感染诱导的酸性囊泡细胞器 (AVO)。此外，Q3G 对神经氨酸酶活性没有抑制作用，但通过时间依赖性试验阻断病毒复制，并表现出比 GTP (-8.0 kcal/mol) 更竞争性的结合亲和力 (-7.0 kcal/mal)。阻断流感病毒的聚合酶碱性蛋白-2 亚单位。来自 D. superbus 的 Q3G 显示出对甲型和乙型流感病毒 es 的强效抗病毒活性，对病毒诱导的细胞 ROS 生成和 AVO 形成具有抑制作用。因此，本研究为 Q3G 开发可能的天然抗流感药物提供了新的研究路线。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.