Immunomodulatory Effect of Doxycycline Ameliorates Systemic and Pulmonary Inflammation in a Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis Model.
- 作者列表："Patel A","Khande H","Periasamy H","Mokale S
:Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition developed after severe sepsis in response to excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Doxycycline is widely reported to possess immunomodulatory activity through inhibition of various inflammatory pathways. Considering the broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity, protective effect of doxycycline was evaluated in clinically relevant murine polymicrobial sepsis model induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In this model, sepsis is accompanied with infection and therefore ceftriaxone at sub-protective dose was combined to retard the bacterial growth. Three hours after CLP challenge, mice were administered vehicle, ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg subcutaneously) alone and in combination with immunomodulatory dose of doxycycline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and survival were monitored for 5 days. Bacterial count in blood and peritoneal fluid along with cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and lung homogenate were measured at 18 h post-CLP. Plasma glutathione (GSH) was also determined. Doxycycline in presence of ceftriaxone improved survival of septic mice by significantly reducing the plasma and lung pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO levels. It also increased plasma GSH levels. Doxycycline did not improve antibacterial effect of ceftriaxone in combination, suggesting that the protective effect of doxycycline was due to its immunomodulatory activity. Doxycycline in the presence of ceftriaxone demonstrated improved survival of septic mice by modulating the immune response.
急性肺损伤是严重脓毒症后由于促炎细胞因子分泌过多而引起的一种炎症状态。多西环素被广泛报道通过抑制各种炎症途径具有免疫调节活性。考虑到抗炎活性的广谱性，在盲肠结扎穿刺 (CLP) 诱导的临床相关小鼠多微生物脓毒症模型中评价了多西环素的保护作用。在该模型中，脓毒症伴有感染，因此合并亚保护剂量的头孢曲松以延缓细菌生长。CLP 攻击后 3 小时，给予小鼠溶剂，头孢曲松 (100 mg/kg 皮下) 单独和联合免疫调节剂量的多西环素 (50 mg/kg，腹腔内) 并监测 5 天的生存期。血液和腹腔液细菌计数以及细胞因子 [白细胞介素 (IL)-6 、 il-1 β 、肿瘤坏死因子 (TNF)-α] 和髓过氧化物酶 (MPO) 在 CLP 后 18 h 测定血浆和肺匀浆。同时测定血浆谷胱甘肽 (GSH)。存在头孢曲松的多西环素通过显著降低血浆和肺促炎细胞因子和 MPO 水平改善脓毒症小鼠的存活。它也增加血浆 GSH 水平。多西环素联合使用并不能提高头孢曲松的抗菌效果，提示多西环素的保护作用是由于其免疫调节活性。存在头孢曲松的多西环素通过调节免疫反应改善了脓毒症小鼠的存活。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.