- 作者列表："Ågren L","Elfsmark L","Akfur C","Hägglund L","Ekstrand-Hammarström B","Jonasson S
:High-level concentrations of chlorine (Cl2) can cause life-threatening lung injuries and the objective in this study was to understand the pathogenesis of short-term sequelae of Cl2-induced lung injury and to evaluate whether pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could counteract these injuries using Cl2-exposed precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). The lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with agarose solution and cut into 250 μm-thick slices that were exposed to Cl2 (20-600 ppm) and incubated for 30 min. The tissue slices were pre-treated with NAC (5-25 mM) before exposure to Cl2. Toxicological responses were analyzed after 5 h by measurement of LDH, WST-1 and inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and CINC-1) in medium or lung tissue homogenate. Exposure to Cl2 induced a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (LDH/WST-1) and IL-1β release in medium. Similar cytokine response was detected in tissue homogenate. Contraction of larger airways was measured using electric-field-stimulation method, 200 ppm and control slices had similar contraction level (39 ± 5%) but in the 400 ppm Cl2 group, the evoked contraction was smaller (7 ± 3%) possibly due to tissue damage. NAC-treatment improved cell viability and reduced tissue damage and the contraction was similar to control levels (50 ± 11%) in the NAC treated Cl2-exposed slices. In conclusion, Cl2 induced a concentration-dependent lung tissue damage that was effectively prevented with pre-treatment with NAC. There is a great need to improve the medical treatment of acute lung injury and this PCLS method offers a way to identify and to test new concepts of treatment of Cl2-induced lung injuries.
: 高浓度的氯 (Cl2) 可导致危及生命的肺损伤，本研究的目的是了解 Cl2-诱导的短期后遗症的发病机制，并评估抗氧化剂 N-乙酰半胱氨酸是否肺损伤 (NAC) 可以抵消这些损伤使用 Cl2-暴露的精确切割肺切片 (PCLS)。用琼脂糖溶液填充 Sprague-Dawley 大鼠的肺，切成 250 μ m 厚的切片，暴露于 Cl2 (20-600 ppm)，孵育 30 min。在暴露于 cl2 之前，用 NAC (5-25 mM) 预处理组织切片。5 h 后通过测定培养基或肺组织匀浆中 LDH 、 WST-1 和炎症介质 (il-1 β 、 IL-6 和 CINC-1) 分析毒理学反应。Cl2 暴露诱导了浓度依赖性细胞毒性 (LDH/WST-1) 和 il-1 β 在培养基中的释放。在组织匀浆中检测到类似的细胞因子反应。使用电场刺激法测量较大气道的收缩，200 ppm 和对照切片的收缩水平相似 (39 ± 5%)，但在 400 ppm Cl2 组, 诱发收缩较小 (7 ± 3%)，可能是由于组织损伤。NAC 处理提高了细胞活力，减少了组织损伤，在 NAC 处理的 Cl2-暴露的切片中，收缩水平与对照水平 (50 ± 11%) 相似。总之，Cl2 诱导了一种浓度依赖性肺组织损伤，用 NAC 预处理可有效防止这种损伤。因此，迫切需要改进急性肺损伤的内科治疗方法，该方法为识别和检验 Cl2-诱导的肺损伤治疗的新概念提供了一条途径。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.