Multi-lineage Lung Regeneration by Stem Cell Transplantation across Major Genetic Barriers.
- 作者列表："Hillel-Karniel C","Rosen C","Milman-Krentsis I","Orgad R","Bachar-Lustig E","Shezen E","Reisner Y
:Induction of lung regeneration by transplantation of lung progenitor cells is a critical preclinical challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that robust lung regeneration can be achieved if the endogenous stem cell niches in the recipient's lung are vacated by sub-lethal pre-conditioning. However, overcoming MHC barriers is an additional requirement for clinical application of this attractive approach. We demonstrate here that durable tolerance toward mis-matched lung progenitors and their derivatives can be achieved without any chronic immune suppression, by virtue of co-transplantation with hematopoietic progenitors from the same donor. Initial proof of concept of this approach was attained by transplantation of fetal lung cells comprising both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic progenitors. Furthermore, an even higher rate of blood and epithelial lung chimerism was attained by using adult lung cells supplemented with bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors. These results lay the foundation for repair of lung injury through a procedure akin to bone marrow transplantation.
: 通过移植肺祖细胞诱导肺再生是一个关键的临床前挑战。最近，我们证明，如果通过亚致死预处理使受体肺中的内源性干细胞壁龛腾空，就可以实现健壮的肺再生。然而，克服 MHC 屏障是临床应用这种有吸引力的方法的额外要求。我们在这里证明，通过与来自同一供体的造血祖细胞共同移植，可以在没有任何慢性免疫抑制的情况下实现对不匹配的肺祖细胞及其衍生物的持久耐受。这种方法的概念初步证明是通过移植包含造血和非造血祖细胞的胎儿肺细胞获得的。此外，通过使用补充骨髓造血祖细胞的成人肺细胞，获得了更高的血液和上皮肺嵌合体率。这些结果为通过类似于骨髓移植的方法修复肺损伤奠定了基础。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.