UNC0638 induces high levels of fetal hemoglobin expression in β-thalassemia/HbE erythroid progenitor cells.
- 作者列表："Nualkaew T","Khamphikham P","Pongpaksupasin P","Kaewsakulthong W","Songdej D","Paiboonsukwong K","Sripichai O","Engel JD","Hongeng S","Fucharoen S","Jearawiriyapaisarn N
:Increased expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) improves the clinical severity of β-thalassemia patients. EHMT1/2 histone methyltransferases are epigenetic modifying enzymes that are responsible for catalyzing addition of the repressive histone mark H3K9me2 at silenced genes, including the γ-globin genes. UNC0638, a chemical inhibitor of EHMT1/2, has been shown to induce HbF expression in human erythroid progenitor cell cultures. Here, we report the HbF-inducing activity of UNC0638 in erythroid progenitor cells from β-thalassemia/HbE patients. UNC0638 treatment led to significant increases in γ-globin mRNA, HbF expression, and HbF-containing cells in the absence of significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, UNC0638 showed additive effects on HbF induction in combination with the immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide and the DNMT1 inhibitor decitabine. These studies provide a scientific proof of concept that a small molecule targeting EHMT1/2 epigenetic enzymes, used alone or in combination with pomalidomide or decitabine, is a potential therapeutic approach for HbF induction. Further development of structural analogs of UNC0638 with similar biological effects but improved pharmacokinetic properties may lead to promising therapies and possible clinical application for the treatment of β-thalassemia.
: 胎儿血红蛋白 (HbF) 表达增加改善 β-地中海贫血患者的临床严重程度。EHMT1/2组蛋白甲基转移酶是表观遗传修饰酶，负责催化抑制性组蛋白标记H3K9me2在沉默基因 (包括 γ-珠蛋白基因) 上的添加。UNC0638，一种EHMT1/2的化学抑制剂，已显示在人红系祖细胞培养物中诱导HbF表达。在此，我们报道了UNC0638在 β-地中海贫血/HbE患者红系祖细胞中的HbF诱导活性。UNC0638处理导致 γ-珠蛋白mRNA、HbF表达和含HbF的细胞在没有显著细胞毒性的情况下显著增加。此外，UNC0638显示与免疫调节药物泊马度胺和DNMT1抑制剂地西他滨组合对HbF诱导的累加效应。这些研究提供了一个概念的科学证明，即单独或与泊马度胺或地西他滨组合使用的靶向EHMT1/2表观遗传酶的小分子是HbF诱导的潜在治疗方法。进一步开发具有相似生物学效应但改善药代动力学性质的UNC0638结构类似物可能导致治疗 β-地中海贫血的有希望的疗法和可能的临床应用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenetic diseases in the south of China and Southeast Asia. Hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome was caused by a homozygous Southeast Asian deletion (-/-) in the HBA gene. Few studies have proved the potential of screen for Bart's hydrops fetalis using fetal cell-free DNA. However, the number of cases is still relatively small. Clinical trials of large samples would be needed. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we aimed to develop a noninvasive method of target-captured sequencing and genotyping by the Bayesian method using cell-free fetal DNA to identify the fetal genotype in pregnant women who are at risk of having hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis in a large-scale study. STUDY DESIGN:In total, 192,173 couples from 30 hospitals were enrolled in our study and 878 couples were recruited, among whom both the pregnant women and their husbands were detected to be carriers of Southeast Asian type (-/αα) of α-thalassemia. Prenatal diagnosis was performed by chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, or cordocentesis using gap-polymerase chain reaction considered as the golden standard. RESULTS:As a result, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of our noninvasive method were 98.81% and 94.72%, respectively, in the training set as well as 100% and 99.31%, respectively, in the testing set. Moreover, our method could identify all of 885 maternal samples with the Southeast Asian carrier and 36 trisomy samples with 100% of sensitivity in T13, T18, and T21 and 99.89% (1 of 917) and 99.88% (1 of 888) of specificity in T18 and T21, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our method opens the possibility of early screening for maternal genotyping of α-thalassemia, fetal aneuploidies in chromosomes 13/18/21, and hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis detection in 1 tube of maternal plasma.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious illness with disabling acute and chronic pain that needs better therapies, but insufficient patient participation in research is a major impediment to advancing SCD pain management. The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges of conducting an SCD study and approaches to successfully overcoming those challenges. DESIGN:In a repeated-measures, longitudinal study designed to characterize SCD pain phenotypes, we recruited 311 adults of African ancestry. Adults with SCD completed 4 study visits 6 months apart, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed 1 visit. RESULTS:We recruited and completed measures on 186 patients with SCD and 125 healthy controls. We retained 151 patients with SCD with data at 4 time points over 18 months and 125 healthy controls (1 time point) but encountered many challenges in recruitment and study visit completion. Enrollment delays often arose from patients' difficulty in taking time from their complicated lives and frequent pain episodes. Once scheduled, participants with SCD cancelled 49% of visits often because of pain; controls canceled 30% of their scheduled visits. To facilitate recruitment and retention, we implemented a number of strategies that were invaluable in our success. CONCLUSION:Patients' struggles with illness, chronic pain, and their life situations resulted in many challenges to recruitment and completion of study visits. Important to overcoming challenges was gaining the trust of patients with SCD and a participant-centered approach. Early identification of potential problems allowed strategies to be instituted proactively, leading to success.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell anemia is the commonest genetic disorder in India, and the frequency of the sickle cell gene is very high in the remote tribal areas where facilities are generally limited. Therefore, a rapid and affordable point-of-care test for sickle cell disease is needed. METHODS:The diagnostic accuracy of HemoTypeSC was evaluated against automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the gold standard for its efficacy in a newborn screening program. RESULTS:A total of 1,559 individuals (980 newborns and 579 adults) from four participating centers were analyzed by both methods. HemoTypeSC correctly identified 209 of 211 total hemoglobin (Hb) SS cases, for a 99.1%/99.9% total HbSS sensitivity/specificity. Overall, HemoTypeSC exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 99.1% for all possible phenotypes (HbAA, HbAS, and HbSS) detected. HPLC is relatively expensive and not available in most laboratories in remote tribal areas. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that the rapid, point-of-care testing device HemoTypeSC test is suitable for population and newborn screening for the HbS phenotype.