- 作者列表："Radtke S","Humbert O","Kiem HP
:Gene therapy has become an important treatment option for a variety of hematological diseases. The biggest advances have been made with CAR T cells and many of those studies are now FDA approved as a routine treatment for some hematologic malignancies. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is not far behind with treatment approvals granted for beta-hemoglobinopathies and adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID), and additional approbations currently being sought. With the current pace of research, the significant investment of biotech companies, and the continuously growing toolbox of viral as well as non-viral gene delivery methods, the development of new ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy approaches is at an all-time high. Research in the field of gene therapy has been ongoing for more than 4 decades with big success stories as well as devastating drawbacks along the way. In particular, the damaging effect of uncontrolled viral vector integration observed in the initial gene therapy applications in the 90s led to a more comprehensive upfront safety assessment of treatment strategies. Since the late 90s, an important read-out to comprehensively assess the quality and safety of cell products has come forward with the mouse xenograft model. Here, we review the use of mouse models across the different stages of basic, pre-clinical and translational research towards the clinical application of HSC-mediated gene therapy and editing approaches.
: 基因治疗已成为多种血液病的重要治疗选择。Cart细胞已经取得了最大的进展，其中许多研究现在被FDA批准作为一些恶性血液病的常规治疗。造血干细胞 (HSC) 基因治疗在获得 β-血红蛋白病和腺苷脱氨酶严重联合免疫缺陷 (ADA-SCID) 的治疗批准以及目前正在寻求的额外认可方面并不落后。随着目前研究的步伐，生物技术公司的重大投资，以及病毒和非病毒基因递送方法的不断增长的工具箱，新的离体和体内基因治疗方法的发展处于历史最高水平。基因治疗领域的研究已经持续了40多年，伴随着巨大的成功故事以及一路上毁灭性的缺点。特别地，在90年代的初始基因治疗应用中观察到的不受控制的病毒载体整合的破坏作用导致治疗策略的更全面的前期安全性评估。自90年代末以来，全面评估细胞产品质量和安全性的重要读数出现了小鼠异种移植模型。在这里，我们回顾了在基础，临床前和转化研究的不同阶段使用小鼠模型对HSC介导的基因治疗和编辑方法的临床应用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenetic diseases in the south of China and Southeast Asia. Hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome was caused by a homozygous Southeast Asian deletion (-/-) in the HBA gene. Few studies have proved the potential of screen for Bart's hydrops fetalis using fetal cell-free DNA. However, the number of cases is still relatively small. Clinical trials of large samples would be needed. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we aimed to develop a noninvasive method of target-captured sequencing and genotyping by the Bayesian method using cell-free fetal DNA to identify the fetal genotype in pregnant women who are at risk of having hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis in a large-scale study. STUDY DESIGN:In total, 192,173 couples from 30 hospitals were enrolled in our study and 878 couples were recruited, among whom both the pregnant women and their husbands were detected to be carriers of Southeast Asian type (-/αα) of α-thalassemia. Prenatal diagnosis was performed by chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, or cordocentesis using gap-polymerase chain reaction considered as the golden standard. RESULTS:As a result, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of our noninvasive method were 98.81% and 94.72%, respectively, in the training set as well as 100% and 99.31%, respectively, in the testing set. Moreover, our method could identify all of 885 maternal samples with the Southeast Asian carrier and 36 trisomy samples with 100% of sensitivity in T13, T18, and T21 and 99.89% (1 of 917) and 99.88% (1 of 888) of specificity in T18 and T21, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our method opens the possibility of early screening for maternal genotyping of α-thalassemia, fetal aneuploidies in chromosomes 13/18/21, and hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis detection in 1 tube of maternal plasma.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious illness with disabling acute and chronic pain that needs better therapies, but insufficient patient participation in research is a major impediment to advancing SCD pain management. The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges of conducting an SCD study and approaches to successfully overcoming those challenges. DESIGN:In a repeated-measures, longitudinal study designed to characterize SCD pain phenotypes, we recruited 311 adults of African ancestry. Adults with SCD completed 4 study visits 6 months apart, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed 1 visit. RESULTS:We recruited and completed measures on 186 patients with SCD and 125 healthy controls. We retained 151 patients with SCD with data at 4 time points over 18 months and 125 healthy controls (1 time point) but encountered many challenges in recruitment and study visit completion. Enrollment delays often arose from patients' difficulty in taking time from their complicated lives and frequent pain episodes. Once scheduled, participants with SCD cancelled 49% of visits often because of pain; controls canceled 30% of their scheduled visits. To facilitate recruitment and retention, we implemented a number of strategies that were invaluable in our success. CONCLUSION:Patients' struggles with illness, chronic pain, and their life situations resulted in many challenges to recruitment and completion of study visits. Important to overcoming challenges was gaining the trust of patients with SCD and a participant-centered approach. Early identification of potential problems allowed strategies to be instituted proactively, leading to success.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell anemia is the commonest genetic disorder in India, and the frequency of the sickle cell gene is very high in the remote tribal areas where facilities are generally limited. Therefore, a rapid and affordable point-of-care test for sickle cell disease is needed. METHODS:The diagnostic accuracy of HemoTypeSC was evaluated against automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the gold standard for its efficacy in a newborn screening program. RESULTS:A total of 1,559 individuals (980 newborns and 579 adults) from four participating centers were analyzed by both methods. HemoTypeSC correctly identified 209 of 211 total hemoglobin (Hb) SS cases, for a 99.1%/99.9% total HbSS sensitivity/specificity. Overall, HemoTypeSC exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 99.1% for all possible phenotypes (HbAA, HbAS, and HbSS) detected. HPLC is relatively expensive and not available in most laboratories in remote tribal areas. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that the rapid, point-of-care testing device HemoTypeSC test is suitable for population and newborn screening for the HbS phenotype.