Phenotypic-screening generates active novel fetal globin-inducers that downregulate Bcl11a in a monkey model.
- 作者列表："Makino T","Haruyama M","Katayama K","Terashima H","Tsunemi T","Miyazaki K","Terakawa M","Yamashiro K","Yoshioka R","Maeda H
:Heritable disorders associated with hemoglobin production are the most common monogenic disorders. These are mainly represented by disorders such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has been known to ameliorate the clinical severity of these β hemoglobinopathies. A high throughput phenotypic screening was used in this study to isolate novel compounds that may enhance the expression of γ-globin, the component of HbF, in human erythroid cell lines and primary erythroid progenitors derived from human CD34+ cells. The effect of lead compounds on epigenetic enzymes and key transcriptional factors was evaluated to identify their mode of action. One hit compound was further evaluated in vivo using monkey models. Among the ~18,000 compounds screened, 18 compounds were selected and tested to determine their ability to induce HbF in human erythroid cell lines and primary erythroid cells. One of these compounds, a 3-phenyl-isoxazole derivative, could potentially induce HbF in monkey bone marrow cells when administered orally. The compound downregulated negative transcriptional regulators of HbF, Bcl11a and LRF without inhibiting the known epigenetic enzymes. These studies demonstrated the advantages associated with phenotype-screening and identified novel fetal globin inducers that may be useful for treating hemoglobinopathies.
: 与血红蛋白产生相关的遗传性疾病是最常见的单基因疾病。这些主要表现为诸如 β-地中海贫血和镰状细胞病的病症。已知诱导胎儿血红蛋白 (HbF) 可改善这些 β 血红蛋白病的临床严重程度。在本研究中使用高通量表型筛选来分离新化合物，所述新化合物可以增强人红系细胞系和衍生自人CD34 + 细胞的原代红系祖细胞中HbF组分 γ-珠蛋白的表达。评估先导化合物对表观遗传酶和关键转录因子的影响，以确定其作用模式。使用猴模型在体内进一步评估一种命中化合物。在筛选的 ~ 18,000种化合物中，选择并测试了18种化合物以确定它们在人红系细胞系和原代红系细胞中诱导HbF的能力。这些化合物中的一种，3-苯基-异恶唑衍生物，在口服给药时可能在猴骨髓细胞中诱导HbF。该化合物下调HbF、Bcl11a和LRF的负转录调节因子，而不抑制已知的表观遗传酶。这些研究证明了与表型筛选相关的优势，并鉴定了可能用于治疗血红蛋白病的新型胎儿珠蛋白诱导剂。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenetic diseases in the south of China and Southeast Asia. Hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome was caused by a homozygous Southeast Asian deletion (-/-) in the HBA gene. Few studies have proved the potential of screen for Bart's hydrops fetalis using fetal cell-free DNA. However, the number of cases is still relatively small. Clinical trials of large samples would be needed. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we aimed to develop a noninvasive method of target-captured sequencing and genotyping by the Bayesian method using cell-free fetal DNA to identify the fetal genotype in pregnant women who are at risk of having hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis in a large-scale study. STUDY DESIGN:In total, 192,173 couples from 30 hospitals were enrolled in our study and 878 couples were recruited, among whom both the pregnant women and their husbands were detected to be carriers of Southeast Asian type (-/αα) of α-thalassemia. Prenatal diagnosis was performed by chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, or cordocentesis using gap-polymerase chain reaction considered as the golden standard. RESULTS:As a result, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of our noninvasive method were 98.81% and 94.72%, respectively, in the training set as well as 100% and 99.31%, respectively, in the testing set. Moreover, our method could identify all of 885 maternal samples with the Southeast Asian carrier and 36 trisomy samples with 100% of sensitivity in T13, T18, and T21 and 99.89% (1 of 917) and 99.88% (1 of 888) of specificity in T18 and T21, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our method opens the possibility of early screening for maternal genotyping of α-thalassemia, fetal aneuploidies in chromosomes 13/18/21, and hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis detection in 1 tube of maternal plasma.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious illness with disabling acute and chronic pain that needs better therapies, but insufficient patient participation in research is a major impediment to advancing SCD pain management. The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges of conducting an SCD study and approaches to successfully overcoming those challenges. DESIGN:In a repeated-measures, longitudinal study designed to characterize SCD pain phenotypes, we recruited 311 adults of African ancestry. Adults with SCD completed 4 study visits 6 months apart, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed 1 visit. RESULTS:We recruited and completed measures on 186 patients with SCD and 125 healthy controls. We retained 151 patients with SCD with data at 4 time points over 18 months and 125 healthy controls (1 time point) but encountered many challenges in recruitment and study visit completion. Enrollment delays often arose from patients' difficulty in taking time from their complicated lives and frequent pain episodes. Once scheduled, participants with SCD cancelled 49% of visits often because of pain; controls canceled 30% of their scheduled visits. To facilitate recruitment and retention, we implemented a number of strategies that were invaluable in our success. CONCLUSION:Patients' struggles with illness, chronic pain, and their life situations resulted in many challenges to recruitment and completion of study visits. Important to overcoming challenges was gaining the trust of patients with SCD and a participant-centered approach. Early identification of potential problems allowed strategies to be instituted proactively, leading to success.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Sickle cell anemia is the commonest genetic disorder in India, and the frequency of the sickle cell gene is very high in the remote tribal areas where facilities are generally limited. Therefore, a rapid and affordable point-of-care test for sickle cell disease is needed. METHODS:The diagnostic accuracy of HemoTypeSC was evaluated against automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the gold standard for its efficacy in a newborn screening program. RESULTS:A total of 1,559 individuals (980 newborns and 579 adults) from four participating centers were analyzed by both methods. HemoTypeSC correctly identified 209 of 211 total hemoglobin (Hb) SS cases, for a 99.1%/99.9% total HbSS sensitivity/specificity. Overall, HemoTypeSC exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 99.1% for all possible phenotypes (HbAA, HbAS, and HbSS) detected. HPLC is relatively expensive and not available in most laboratories in remote tribal areas. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that the rapid, point-of-care testing device HemoTypeSC test is suitable for population and newborn screening for the HbS phenotype.