Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of tooth shape in hypodontia: II size variation.
- 作者列表："AlShahrani I
:The study aimed to evaluate differences in tooth size between patients with hypodontia and those with normal complement of permanent teeth using three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis. The number of anatomical landmarks was recorded on the clinical crown of the permanent teeth on three-dimensional scanned study models of hypodontia and in control subjects. The study sample comprised 120 patients with hypodontia (mild, moderate, severe) and 40 controls matched for age and sex. Tooth size differences were tested statistically using multivariate statistics. Size variation was for the most part found to be significant, especially when the control subjects were compared with the hypodontia groups. The explained variance among group membership was generally larger in the anterior and premolar region than in the molar region Sexual dimorphism was found less in the anterior region than in the posterior region; therefore, the sexes were pooled more often for teeth in the anterior region. Quantitative measurement of tooth size in patients with hypodontia may enhance the multidisciplinary management of these patients.
: 该研究旨在使用三维几何形态分析评估缺牙患者和恒牙补体正常患者之间牙齿大小的差异。在下颌发育不全的三维扫描研究模型和对照受试者的恒牙临床牙冠上记录解剖标志的数量。研究样本包括120名患有减退症 (轻度、中度、重度) 的患者和40名年龄和性别匹配的对照。使用多变量统计对牙齿大小差异进行统计测试。发现尺寸变化在大多数情况下是显著的，尤其是当对照受试者与缺牙组比较时。群体成员之间解释的差异在前磨牙区和前磨牙区通常大于磨牙区。发现前牙区比后牙区的性别差异较小; 因此，前牙区的性别汇集更多。定量测量缺牙患者的牙齿大小可能会增强这些患者的多学科管理。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.