Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of the Facial Movement Symmetry of Skeletal Class III Patients With Facial Asymmetry.
三维动态分析骨骼 ⅲ 类面部不对称患者面部运动对称性。
- 作者列表："Xue Z","Wu L","Qiu T","Li Z","Wang X","Liu X
PURPOSE:Dynamic asymmetry has not been as rigorously evaluated as static asymmetry for patients with skeletal deformity but could well be even more important. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dynamic facial movement of Class III patients with facial asymmetry using a 3-dimensional (3D) motion capture system. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The present cross-sectional study recruited patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion with and without facial asymmetry. A 3D facial motion capture system was used to record the expression process of a maximal smile. Eleven orofacial landmarks were selected to analyze and calculate the cumulative distance and average speed of each landmark during smiling. The predictor variable was mandibular symmetry. The outcome variables consisted of the measurements of each soft tissue landmark and the absolute differences for the paired landmarks between 2 sides. Other variables consisted of descriptive data, including the age and gender of each patient. The data were analyzed using independent t tests and paired t tests. Bonferroni's adjustment was used to control for multiple comparisons. RESULTS:A total of 63 patients were divided into 2 groups, an asymmetric group (n = 46) and a control group (n = 17), according to the degree of skeletal deviation. The difference in the cumulative distance of the bilateral cheilions was statistically significant between the 2 groups (P = .002). The difference for the asymmetric and control groups was 2.06 ± 1.78 mm and 1.00 ± 0.79 mm, respectively. In the asymmetric group, a comparison of the deviated side with the nondeviated side revealed statistically significant differences in the magnitude of motion for the cheilion (P < .01) and midlateral lower lip (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS:The patients with skeletal asymmetry also showed asymmetry in soft tissue functions while smiling. The magnitude of movement in the nondeviated side was greater than that in the deviated side.
目的: 对于骨骼畸形患者，动态不对称没有像静态不对称那样严格评估，但可能更重要。本研究的目的是使用三维 (3D) 运动捕捉系统评估面部不对称的III类患者的动态面部运动。 材料和方法: 本横断面研究招募了伴有和不伴有面部不对称的骨性III类错 (牙合) 患者。使用3D面部运动捕捉系统记录最大微笑的表达过程。选取11个口面部界标，分析计算每个界标在微笑时的累计距离和平均速度。预测变量为下颌对称性。结果变量由每个软组织标志的测量值和两侧之间成对标志的绝对差异组成。其他变量包括描述性数据，包括每个患者的年龄和性别。使用独立t检验和配对t检验分析数据。Bonferroni的调整用于控制多重比较。 结果: 63例患者根据骨骼偏离程度分为不对称组 (46例) 和对照组 (17例)。2组间双侧唇部累积距离差异有统计学意义 (P = .002)。不对称组和对照组的差异分别为2.06 ± 1.78毫米和1.00 ± 0.79毫米。在不对称组中，偏离侧与未偏离侧的比较显示cheilion (P < .01) 和中外侧下唇 (P < .01) 的运动幅度具有统计学显著性差异。 结论: 骨骼不对称的患者在微笑时也表现出软组织功能的不对称。非偏斜侧的运动幅度大于偏斜侧。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.