Biomechanical role of posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty: A finite element analysis.
- 作者列表："Nikkhoo M","Hassani K","Tavakoli Golpaygani A","Karimi A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The knee joint is a complex structure which is vulnerable to injury due to various types of loadings as a consequence of walking, running, stair climbing, etc. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a widely used and successful orthopedic procedure which during that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can either be retained or substituted. Different surgical techniques suggest retention or sacrifice of the PCL in TKA for the treatment of osteoarthritis which may alter the post-op outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical role of PCL after TKA surgery using finite element (FE) modeling. METHODS:A three-dimensional (3D) FE model of the prosthetic knee was developed and its validity was compared to available studies in literature. Further, the effect of the retention or removing of the PCL as well as its degradation (i.e. variation in mechanical properties) and angle on knee biomechanics were evaluated during a weight-bearing squatting movement. RESULTS:The validity of the intact model were confirmed. The results revealed higher stresses in the PCL and tibial insert at higher femoral flexion angles. In addition, the effect of variations in the stiffness of the PCL was found to be negligible at lower while considerable at higher femoral flexion angles. The variations in the elevation angle of the PCL from 89° to 83° at the critical femoral angles of 60° and 120° showed the highest von Mises stresses in the tibial insert. CONCLUSIONS:The results have implications not only for understanding the stresses in the prosthetic knee model under squat movement but also for providing comprehensive information about the effects of variations in the PCL stiffness and balancing on the induced stresses of the PCL and tibial insert.
背景和目的: 膝关节是一种复杂的结构，由于步行、跑步、爬楼梯等原因，其容易受到各种载荷的损伤。全膝关节置换术 (TKA) 是一种广泛使用且成功的矫形手术，在此期间，后交叉韧带 (PCL)可以保留或替换。不同的手术技术建议在TKA中保留或牺牲PCL以治疗骨关节炎，这可能改变术后结果。本研究的目的是使用有限元 (FE) 模型评估TKA手术后PCL的生物力学作用。 方法: 建立了人工膝关节的三维有限元模型，并将其有效性与文献中的研究进行了比较。此外，PCL的保留或去除的影响以及其降解 (即。在负重下蹲运动期间评估机械性能的变化) 和膝关节生物力学角度。 结果: 证实了完整模型的有效性。结果显示，在股骨屈曲角较高的情况下，PCL和胫骨插入物中的应力较高。此外，发现PCL的刚度变化的影响在较低时可以忽略，而在较高的股骨屈曲角度时相当大。在60 ° 和120 ° 的临界股骨角下，PCL仰角从89 ° 到83 ° 的变化显示胫骨插入物中的最高von Mises应力。 结论: 该结果不仅有助于理解下蹲运动下假体膝关节模型中的应力，还有助于提供关于PCL刚度和平衡变化对PCL和胫骨插入物的诱导应力的影响的全面信息。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.