A novel anatomical consideration on the exposed segment of the facial artery.
- 作者列表："Lee JH","Lee K","Jung W","Youn KH","Hu KS","Tansatit T","Park HJ","Kim HJ
:An understanding of the location and depth of the facial artery (FA) is essential in aesthetic surgery and various cosmetic procedures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the three-dimensional (3D) topography of the exposed segment (ES) of the FA and to provide information to help minimize complications during clinical procedures. From 50 embalmed adult cadavers, the undissected and dissected hemifaces were scanned and reconstructed using the 3D scanner. Then the topographic location of the ES was identified and measured from the superimposed the 3D images. The ES was observed in 82% of the whole specimens. The exposure patterns of the ES were examined, and classified into three types: Type I, one site exposed pattern (74%); Type II, two sites exposed pattern (8%); and Type III, nonexposed pattern (18%). The extent of the ES was located at 2.2 mm above and 4.2 mm below the cheilion (Ch)-otobasion inferius line, and 20.0 to 25.2 mm from the Ch on the lateral aspect. In the frontal view, the average distance from the mid-pupillary line to the ES was 7.1 mm, and from the lateral canthal line to the ES was 6.1 mm. The ES was 7.6 mm below the skin surface. The results of this study will help to provide safe guidelines for filler injections as well as selecting the safe regions in various clinical procedures. Clin. Anat. 33:257-264, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
: 了解面动脉 (FA) 的位置和深度在美容手术和各种美容手术中至关重要。本研究的目的是阐明FA暴露节段的三维 (3D) 形貌，并提供信息以帮助在临床过程中尽量减少并发症。从50具经防腐处理的成人尸体中，使用3D扫描仪扫描和重建未解剖和解剖的半侧面部。然后从叠加的3D图像识别和测量ES的地形位置。在整个样本的82% 中观察到ES。检查ES的暴露模式，并将其分为三种类型: I型，一个位点暴露模式 (74%); II型，两个位点暴露模式 (18%); 和III型，非暴露模式 ()。ES的范围位于cheilion (Ch)-otobasion下索线上方2.2mm处和下方4.2mm处，在侧面距离Ch 20.0至25.2mm处。在正面视图中，从瞳孔中线到ES的平均距离为7.1 mm，并且从外眼管线到ES的平均距离为6.1 mm。ES在皮肤表面下7.6mm。这项研究的结果将有助于提供填充剂注射的安全指南，以及在各种临床程序中选择安全区域。克林。Anat.33:257-264、2020。©2019威利期刊公司
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.