Interactive three-dimensional teaching models of the female and male pelvic floor.

男女盆底交互式三维教学模式 [j].

  • 影响因子:1.61
  • DOI:10.1002/ca.23508
  • 作者列表:"Wu Y","Hikspoors JPJM","Mommen G","Dabhoiwala NF","Hu X","Tan LW","Zhang SX","Lamers WH
  • 发表时间:2020-03-01

:Controversies regarding structure and function of the pelvic floor persist because of its poor accessibility and complex anatomical architecture. Most data are based on dissection. This "surgical" approach requires profound prior knowledge, because applying the scalpel precludes a "second look." The "sectional" approach does not entail these limitations, but requires segmentation of structures and three-dimensional reconstruction. This approach has produced several "Visible Human Projects." We dealt with limited spatial resolution and difficult-to-segment structures by proceeding from clear-cut to more fuzzy boundaries and comparing segmentation between investigators. We observed that the bicipital levator ani muscle consisted of pubovisceral and puborectal portions; that the pubovisceral muscle formed, together with rectococcygeal and rectoperineal muscles, a rectal diaphragm; that the external anal sphincter consisted of its subcutaneous portion and the puborectal muscle only; that the striated urethral sphincter had three parts, of which the middle (urethral compressor) was best developed in females and the circular lower ("membranous") best in males; that the rectourethral muscle, an anterior extension of the rectal longitudinal smooth muscle, developed a fibrous node in its center (perineal body); that the perineal body was much better developed in females than males, so that the rectourethral subdivision into posterior rectoperineal and anterior deep perineal muscles was more obvious in females; that the superficial transverse perineal muscle attached to the fibrous septa of the ischioanal fat; and that the uterosacral ligaments and mesorectal fascia colocalized. To facilitate comprehension of the modified topography we provide interactive 3D-PDFs that are freely available for teaching purposes. Clin. Anat. 33:275-285, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


: 关于盆底结构和功能的争议持续存在,因为其可达性差和解剖结构复杂。大多数数据基于解剖。这种 “外科” 方法需要深刻的先验知识,因为应用手术刀排除了 “第二次观察”。“截面” 方法不需要这些限制,而是需要结构的分割和三维重建。这种方法产生了几个 “可见的人类项目”。我们通过从清晰的边界到更模糊的边界并比较研究人员之间的分割来处理有限的空间分辨率和难以分割的结构。我们观察到提肛肌由直肠和耻骨直肠部分组成; 耻骨肌与直肠和耻骨直肠肌一起形成直肠隔膜; 肛门外括约肌仅由皮下部分和耻骨直肠肌组成; 横纹肌尿道括约肌有三个部分,其中中间 (尿道压缩器) 在女性中发育最好,圆形下部 (“膜”) 在男性中发育最好; 直肠尿道肌,直肠纵向平滑肌的前部延伸,在其中心 (会阴体) 形成纤维结节;女性会阴部发育较男性好,因此女性会阴部向后直肠膜和前会阴深肌的直肠尿道细分更明显; 会阴浅横肌附着在坐骨肛门脂肪的纤维间隔上; 子宫骶骨韧带和直肠系膜筋膜共定位。为了便于理解修改后的地形,我们提供了可免费用于教学目的的交互式3d-pdf。克林。Anat.33:275-285、2020。©2019威利期刊公司



来源期刊:European radiology
作者列表:["Delattre BMA","Boudabbous S","Hansen C","Neroladaki A","Hachulla AL","Vargas MI"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.

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作者列表:["Guo W","Liu H","Tan Z","Zhang X","Gao J","Zhang L","Guo H","Bai H","Cui W","Liu X","Wu X","Luo J","Qu Y"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.

作者列表:["Meng L","Zhao D","Yang Z","Wang B"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.

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