Creation of Virtual Three-Dimensional Animation Using Computer Graphic Technology for Videoscopic Transcervical Upper Mediastinal Esophageal Dissection.
- 作者列表："Ishida Y","Kumamoto T","Watanabe H","Kurahashi Y","Niwa H","Nakanishi Y","Okumura K","Ozawa R","Mizuno K","Uyama I","Shinohara H
: Background: Videoscopic transcervical mediastinal lymphadenectomy has been attempted to reduce thoracotomy-related complications of surgical treatment for esophageal cancer. However, many surgeons would hesitate to attempt this procedure because of the difficulty in understanding the anatomical orientation. In this study, we aimed to create a three-dimensional computer graphic (3D CG) animation and compare it with the real-life operation. Materials and Methods: LightWave 3D® version 7 was used as a rendering software to create the 3D CG. The 3D CG images were superimposed to generate an animation using AfterEffects CC®. Results: The 3D CG animation for videoscopic transcervical upper mediastinal esophageal dissection was successfully created; it dynamically shows the scene, especially the separation between the esophagus and trachea, and enables surgeons to easily understand the anatomical orientation when using transcervical approach. This 3D CG animation was of high quality and similar to the real-life operation. Conclusions: We created a virtual 3D CG animation for the transcervical approach, which will contribute to understanding this procedure for esophageal cancer preoperatively.
: 背景: 在食管癌的外科治疗中，已尝试采用电视胸腔镜经颈纵隔淋巴结清扫术来减少开胸手术相关的并发症。然而，由于难以理解解剖方向，许多外科医生会犹豫尝试这种手术。在这项研究中，我们旨在创建一个三维计算机图形 (3D CG) 动画，并将其与现实生活中的操作进行比较。 材料与方法: 光波3D®版本7被用作创建3D CG的渲染软件。叠加3D CG图像以使用AfterEffects (CC) 生成动画。®没有。 结果: 成功创建了视频镜下经子宫颈上纵隔食管解剖的3D CG动画; 它动态地显示了场景，特别是食管和气管之间的分离，使外科医生在使用经子宫颈入路时能够轻松理解解剖方向。这个3D CG动画质量很高，与现实生活中的操作相似。 结论: 我们创建了一个虚拟的3D CG动画的经子宫颈的方法，这将有助于了解这个程序的食管癌术前。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.