Three-dimensional computer modeling of standard orbital mean shape in Asians.
- 作者列表："Kim MJ","Lee MJ","Jeong WS","Hong H","Choi JW
:Although some data for western norms in orbit shape were reported, the standard norms for Asian orbits were not established yet. The data would be very valuable for the various surgical procedures as well as the production of the appropriate instruments and implants. Therefore, we suggest a Korean orbit mean shape model based on the three-dimensional computer modeling, which includes the analysis of the various parameters with the calculated average value, thereby providing a standard mean shape orbital model that could be used for the Asian patients' orbital surgeries. This paper would be the first literature that provides the standard orbit model for Asians. We developed orbit-specific computer software (AMC-SWUⓇ) for the production of an orbit mean shape model. The production steps included semi-automatic segmentation, shape reconstruction, statistical shape model generation, and mean shape and variance model production. The study included records of 48 male and 48 female patients who met the inclusion criteria. Three-dimensional facial bone computed tomography (CT) images of 96 patients were obtained, and these images were used to produce a representative mean shape model. The mean models had vertical dimensions of 36.93 and 35.11 mm, horizontal dimensions of 38.49 and 36.79 mm, and rim dimensions of 45.76 and 42.90 mm for males and females, respectively. We developed a realistic, visualized three-dimensional Korean orbit mean shape model and compared its parameters with calculated values. There is a variance in orbital dimensions between the sexes and the orbital changes with age. We also demonstrated orbital anatomic differences between ethnic groups.
: 虽然报告了西方轨道形状规范的一些数据，但亚洲轨道标准规范尚未建立。这些数据对于各种外科手术以及生产适当的器械和植入物将是非常有价值的。因此，我们提出了一种基于三维计算机建模的韩国眼眶平均形状模型，该模型包括对计算平均值的各种参数的分析，从而提供了一个可用于亚洲患者眼眶手术的标准平均形状眼眶模型。本文将是第一篇为亚洲人提供标准轨道模型的文献。我们开发了轨道专用计算机软件 (amc-swu ⓡ)，用于产生轨道平均形状模型。生产步骤包括半自动分割，形状重建，统计形状模型生成，以及平均形状和方差模型生产。该研究包括符合纳入标准的48名男性和48名女性患者的记录。获得96例患者的三维面骨计算机断层扫描 (CT) 图像，并使用这些图像产生具有代表性的平均形状模型。平均模型的垂直尺寸为36.93和35.11mm，水平尺寸为38.49和36.79mm，男性和女性的边缘尺寸分别为45.76和42.90mm。我们开发了一个现实的，可视化的三维韩国轨道平均形状模型，并将其参数与计算值进行了比较。性别之间的轨道尺寸存在差异，并且轨道随年龄变化。我们还证明了种族群体之间的眼眶解剖差异。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.