Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional Frӓnkel Manoeuvre: a reproducibility study.
二维与三维fr nnkel操作: 可重复性研究。
- 作者列表："Rongo R","Bucci R","Adaimo R","Amato M","Martina S","Valletta R","D'antò V
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of the evaluation of the Frӓnkel Manoeuvre (FM) on three-dimensional (3D) scans and to compare it to the assessment on two-dimensional (2D) pictures. MATERIALS/METHODS:This study included 44 individuals with a skeletal Class II malocclusion [9-16-years old mean age ± standard deviation: 13.5 ± 2.01 years]. All patients had a full Class II molar relationship, overjet ≥6 mm and point A, Nasion, point B angle (ANB) ≥5 degrees. During the FM, each patient was invited to bite in centric occlusion and then to posture the mandible forward to reach a Class I molar relationship. The FM was recorded both by a normal camera and a 3D scanner (3dMD system). Six examiners divided into two groups according to their orthodontic clinical experience (<5 and >10 years), and one gold standard in the evaluation of FM, commented twice (every 15 days) on both 2D photographs (T0 and T2) and 3D scans (T1 and T3). The intra-observer agreement and the inter-observer agreement compared to the gold standard were evaluated by computing the Cohen's K. RESULTS:The agreement between observations for each examiner ranged from 0.36 to 1 on 2D pictures (T0 versus T2), and from 0.22 to 0.69 on 3D scans (T1 versus T3). The overall agreement was 0.63 (95 per cent CI = 0.35-0.91) in 2D analysis and 0.5 (95 per cent CI = 0.35-0.64) in 3D analysis. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS:The FM was less reproducible when performed on 3D records than on 2D pictures.
背景/目的: 评估三维 (3D) 扫描上的fr ӓnkel操作 (FM) 评估的观察者内和观察者间再现性，并将其与二维 (2D) 图片评估进行比较。 材料/方法: 本研究包括44例骨性II类错 [9-16岁平均年龄 ± 标准差: 13.5 ± 2.01岁] 个体。所有患者均有完整的II类磨牙关系，overjet ≥ 6毫米 ° 和a点，Nasion，B点角 (ANB) ≥ 5 °。在FM期间，每个患者被邀请以中心咬合咬合，然后将下颌骨向前定位以达到I类磨牙关系。通过普通相机和3D扫描仪 (3dMD系统) 记录FM。根据其正畸临床经验 (<5年和> 10年) 将六名检查者分为两组，并且在FM的评估中有一个金标准，在2D照片 (T0和T2) 和3D扫描 (T1和T3) 上评论两次 (每15天)。通过计算Cohen's K来评估观察者内部协议和与黄金标准相比的观察者间协议。 结果: 每个检查者的观察结果之间的一致性在2D图片上从0.36到1 (T0对T2)，以及在3D扫描上从0.22到0.69 (T1对T3)。2D分析的总体一致性为0.63 (95% CI = 0.35-0.91)，3D分析的总体一致性为0.5 (95% CI = 0.35-0.64)。 结论/影响: 当在3D记录上比在2D图片上进行时，FM的可重复性较低。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.