Sex-based differences in human sacroiliac joint shape: a three-dimensional morphological analysis of the iliac auricular surface of modern Japanese macerated bones.
- 作者列表："Nishi K","Saiki K","Oyamada J","Okamoto K","Ogami-Takamura K","Hasegawa T","Moriuchi T","Sakamoto J","Higashi T","Tsurumoto T","Manabe Y
:The human pelvis is one of the skeletons where sex differences are expressed, but few detailed studies have been conducted on sex-related differences in the sacroiliac joint morphology. Therefore, we conducted a three-dimensional morphological analysis evaluation of the sacroiliac joints to clarify the sex-related difference of the joint's morphology. Right-side macerated innominate bones of Japanese males (n = 100) and females (n = 70) whose ages at death were recorded were included in the study. Three-dimensional images were created from the subjects' iliac auricular surface images, and 16 measurement parameters were acquired on the basis of 11 defined measurement points. All measurement parameters were compared between the male and female groups. The values of the measurement parameters indicating the size of the iliac auricular surface were significantly larger in the male group than in the female group. In addition, the angle between the short and long arms of the auricular surface was larger in the male group. Furthermore, on the basis of the corrected values of the physical disparity, the long arm dimension of the iliac auricular surface was larger in the male group, while the short arm dimension was larger in the female group. The sex-based differences in the iliac auricular surface morphology that were confirmed in this study may reflect the sex-based differences in the sacroiliac joint function. The findings of this study may contribute to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of the sacroiliac joint dysfunction that frequently occurs in women.
: 人体骨盆是表现性别差异的骨骼之一，但很少有人对骶髂关节形态的性别相关差异进行详细研究。因此，我们对骶髂关节进行了三维形态学分析评价，以明确关节形态的性别相关差异。本研究包括日本男性 (n = 100) 和死亡年龄记录的女性 (n = 70) 的右侧浸渍无名骨。从受试者的髂耳表面图像创建三维图像，并在11个定义的测量点的基础上获取16个测量参数。所有测量参数在男性和女性组之间进行比较。表示髂耳表面大小的测量参数的值在男性组中显著大于女性组。此外，在男性组中，耳廓表面的短臂和长臂之间的角度较大。此外，在身体视差的校正值的基础上，男性组髂耳表面的长臂尺寸较大，而女性组的短臂尺寸较大。本研究证实的髂耳表面形态的性别差异可能反映了骶髂关节功能的性别差异。这项研究的结果可能有助于阐明经常发生在女性中的骶髂关节功能障碍的病理生理学。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.