Quantitative three-dimensional echocardiographic analysis of the bicuspid aortic valve and aortic root: A single modality approach.
- 作者列表："Levack MM","Mecozzi G","Jainandunsing JS","Bouma W","Jassar AS","Pouch AM","Yushkevich PA","Mariani MA","Jackson BM","Gorman JH 3rd","Gorman RC
BACKGROUND:Patients with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) are heterogeneous with regard to patterns of root remodeling and valvular dysfunction. Two-dimensional echocardiography is the standard surveillance modality for patients with aortic valve dysfunction. However, ancillary computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is often necessary to characterize associated patterns of aortic root pathology. Conversely, the pairing of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography with novel quantitative modeling techniques allows for a single modality description of the entire root complex. We sought to determine 3D aortic valve and root geometry with this quantitative approach. METHODS:Transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in five patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) and in five patients with BAV. No patient had evidence of valvular dysfunction or aortic root pathology. A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess 3D aortic annular, valvular, and root geometry. RESULTS:Annular, sinus and sinotubular junction diameters and areas were similar in both groups. Coaptation length and area were higher in the TAV group (7.25 ± 0.98 mm and 298 ± 118 mm2 , respectively) compared to the BAV group (5.67 ± 1.33 mm and 177 ± 43 mm2 ; P = .07 and P = .01). Cusp surface area to annular area, coaptation height, and the sub- and supravalvular tenting indices did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Single modality 3D echocardiography-based modeling allows for a quantitative description of the aortic valve and root geometry. This technique together with novel indices will improve our understanding of normal and pathologic geometry in the BAV population and may help to identify geometric predictors of adverse remodeling and guide tailored surgical therapy.
背景: 二叶式主动脉瓣 (BAV) 患者在根部重塑和瓣膜功能障碍的模式方面存在异质性。二维超声心动图是主动脉瓣功能障碍患者的标准监测方式。然而，辅助计算机断层扫描或磁共振成像通常是表征主动脉根部病理的相关模式所必需的。相反，三维 (3D) 超声心动图与新型定量建模技术的配对允许对整个根复合体进行单一模态描述。我们试图用这种定量方法确定3D主动脉瓣和根部几何形状。 方法: 对5例三尖瓣主动脉瓣 (TAV) 和5例BAV患者进行食管实时三维超声心动图检查。没有患者有瓣膜功能障碍或主动脉根部病变的证据。使用定制的图像分析协议来评估3D主动脉环、瓣膜和根部几何形状。 结果: 两组的环状、窦道和窦道交界直径和面积相似。TAV组的接合长度和面积 (分别为7.25 ± 0.98mm和298 ± 118平方毫米mm) 高于BAV组 (5.67 ± 1.33mm和177 ± 43平方毫米mm; P = .07和p = .01)。组间尖尖表面积至环形面积、接合高度以及瓣下和瓣上帐篷指数无显著差异。 结论: 基于单一模态三维超声心动图的建模允许对主动脉瓣和根部几何形状进行定量描述。这项技术和新的指数将提高我们对BAV人群正常和病理几何形状的理解，并可能有助于确定不利重塑的几何预测因子，并指导定制的手术治疗。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.